① Unit 9 Computer Networks P1

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Define the term indefinite postponement. How does it differ from deadlock? What is page fault? Consider the following page reference string; 3, 3, 5, 4, 7, 1, 5, 5, 1, 4, 3, 7, 6, 3, 4, 1. How many page faults would occur for each of the following page replacement algorithms assuming 4 page frames? Clock replacement. Define the first-fit, best-fit and worst-fit strategies of memory placement. Given memory partitions of 10 k, 4 k, 20 k, 18 k, 7 k, 9 k, 12 k, and 15 k in order. How would each of first- fit, best fit and worst fit algorithms place processes of 12 k, 10 k and 9 k in order? Which algorithms make the best use of memory? Discuss the concept of Belady's anomaly with suitable example.

Given references to the following pages by a program, 0, 9, 0, 1, 8, 1, 8, 7, 8, 7, 1, 2, 8, 2, 7, 8, 2, 3, 8, 3. How many page faults will occur if the program has three page frames for each of the following algorithms? Second Chance. How many page faults occur for each of the following page replacement algorithm for the reference string 0 1 7 2 3 2 7 1 0 3 with four page frames and eight pages? Suppose all frames are initially empty. Optimal replacement. FIFO replacement. LRU replacement. Consider the following page reference string 1, 3, 5,4, 7, 1, 5, 6, 1, 2, 3, 7, 6, 3, 4, 1, 3, 8.

How many page faults would occur for each of the following page replacement algorithms assuming 3 frames? Write short notes on :. Least recently used page replacement algorithm. Associative memory. Consider the following page reference string : 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 1, 5, 6, 2, 3, 7, 6, 3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 6. Assuming three, five or seven frames? Remember all frames are initially empty, so your first unique pages will all cost one fault each. What is thrashing? Explain the cause and solution for thrashing.

What must user programs be prohibited from writing to the memory locations containing the interrupt vector? Given references to the following pages by a program, 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 1, 5, 6, 2, 1, 2, 3, 7, 6, 3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 6. How many page faults will occur if the program has here page frames available to it and uses FIFO replacement? When do page fault occur? Describe the actions taken by an OS when a page fault occurs.

Differentiate between multi programming and Monoprogramming. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation with example. Discuss in detail the use of translation look aside buffer TLB in the process of paging. Support your answer with illustration. What are the segmentation and paging? Why they are combined into one scheme? How many page faults will occur if the program has three page frames available to it and uses LRU replacement? Explain with merits and demerits. A computer with 32 bit address uses a two level page table. Virtual addresses are split into a 9 bit top level page table field, bit second level page table field and offset.

How large the pages? How much maximum space required when page tables loaded into memory if each entry required when page tables loaded into memory if each entry required when page tables loaded into memory if each entry required 4 bytes. What are Segmentation and Paging? Why they are sometimes combine into one scheme? Two separate systems one implemented in bitmap and another in linked list to manage the fragmentation of MB memory.

For bitmap, allocation units are of bytes. For linked list, each holes or segments are of 32 KB, and each node in the list needs a 32 bits. How many bytes of storage is required for each method? Which one is better in terms of memory spare required? What do you mean by memory fragmentation? Distinguish between the internal and external fragmentation. What is Fragmentation? Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. Distinguish between the paging and segmentation.

Why many systems use the combination of both? Under what circumstances do page fault occur? Describe the action taken by the operating system when a page fault occurs. What is the difference between physical address and virtual address? Explain the conversion of virtual address into physical address by MMU. What is swapping? Differentiate contiguous memory allocation with non contiguous memory allocation. Why program relocation and protection is important? Explain the technique of achieving program relocation and protection. Compare the bitmap and linked list implementation of disk free-space management.

How much space required in memory to store bitmap for 20 GB hard disk with 2KB block size. How many bits would be needed to store the free-space list under the following conditions if a bit map were used to implement? Also find how much space is required if it need to be stored in memory. Explain the mapping of virtual address to real address under segmentation. What are the main motivations and issues in primary memory management? Explain how does file allocation table FAT manage the files. Mention the merits and demerits of FAT system.

A GB disk has 1-KB block size, calculate the size of the file allocation table if each entry of the table has to be 3 bytes. What do you mean by file system? What are the major difference between file system interface and file system implementation? Disk scheduling algorithms. Error handling and formatting. File operations. Describe the technique of long file names? In your opinion, which one is most efficient?

Give reason to justify your answer. Define file and directories. Explain about protection mechanism. Explain about hierarchial directory systems with diagrammatic examples. Explain how file allocation table FAT manage the files. Mention the merits and demerits of using FAT. Explain how file allocation table FAT manages files. What do you mean by disk management? What are the major differences between error handling and formatting? Suppose the head of a moving head disk with tracks, numbered 0 to is currently serving request at tracks and has finished a request at track The queue it request is kept in the FIFO order 86, , 91, , 94, , , , What is the total head movements needed to satisfy these request for the following disk-scheduling algorithms?

Suppose that a disk drive has cylinders, numbered 0 to The drive is currently serving a request at cylinder 43, and previous request was at cylinder The queue of pending request, in FIFO order is:. Starting from the current head position, what is the total distance in cylinders that the disk arm moves to satisfy all pending requests for each of the following disk scheduling algorithms? Explain the error handling and formatting operation on the disk.

What is the main objective of disk scheduling algorithms? Assume that we have disk with tracks and currently head is at track number A disk has 8 sector track and spins at rpm. How long does it take to read all 8 sectors using the following interleaving system? No interleaving. Single interleaving. Double interleaving. Suppose that the disk drive has 50 cylinders, numbered from 0 to The drive currently serving the request at cylinder 20 and the previous request was at cylinder The queue of pending request is 10, 22, 20, 2, 40, 6 and 38 in the order. A seek takes 6 msec per cylinder moved. How much seek time is needed for the following disk-scheduling algorithms? First-Come, First-Served. Shortest Seek Time First. What are the functions of Interrupt Handler?

Suppose that a disk drive has the cylinder numbered from 0 to The head is currently at cylinder number The queue for services of cylinder is as 86, , , , ,, , and What is the total head movement in each of the following disk algorithm to satisfy the requests? Suppose that a disk drive has the cylinder numbered, 0 to is currently serving a request at cylinder The queue it request is kept in the FIFO order 25, 17, , , , 15, , , What is the total head movement needed to satisfy these request for the following disk scheduling algorithm.

What are the differences between the trap and interrupt? What is the use of each function? How can you manage free disk space? Explain the linked list approach of managing free disk space with example. What is the advantage of interrupt over polling? Explain the working mechanism of interrupt controller. When programmed IO is suitable than other IO handling techniques? What do you mean by interrupt? How does DMA increase system concurrency? How does it complicate hardware design? A disk queue has the following request to read tracks: 87, , 4, 57, , 32, 67 and How does it complicate the hardware design?

Give reason. A work station running as heavily used web server. Explain the disk management with example. Unit: 1 Operating System Overview 16 questions. Define the essential properties of following types of operating systems: a. Batch b. Interactive c. Time sharing d. Real time e. Word processing b. Generating monthly bank statements c. Computing pi to million decimal places d. A flight simulator e. Define Monolithic and Layered System with suitable examples.

OR What is real time operating system? Classify the following applications as batch-oriented or interactive and explain the reason a Word processing b Generating monthly bank statements c Computing pi to a million decimal places. What are two modes of OS? Discuss different OS structures briefly. Time Sharing d. Real Time e. Differentiate between time sharing and real time system. Write short notes on any two : a. System programs b. Race condition c. Unit: 2 Process Management 44 questions.

For the processes listed in following table, draw a Gantt chart illustrating their execution using: a. First-come-First-Serve b. Short-Job-First c. Shortest-Remaining-Time-Next d. OR Why some process requires high priority? FCFS b. SJF c. For the processes listed in the following table, draw a Gantt chart illustrating their execution and calculate the average waiting time using : a. First-Come-First-Serve b. Define the term race condition. Differentiate between race conditions and critical regions.

How Produce-Consumer problem can be solved with sleep and wakeup primitives? What is the problem with thread implementation in user space when any one of the threads gets blocked while performing IO operation? What is problem associated with semaphores? Explain the concept of monitors in brief. What are the differences between Busy Waiting and Blocking? What is the purpose of system call in OS? Differentiate between thread and process. Unit: 3 Process Deadlocks 14 questions. OR Suppose three peoples are in line waiting for a department store to open for "the big sale". Use Banker algorithm. You should also have a clean and sanitized storage area to ensure that bugs and grain weevils do not infiltrate your stockpile.

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