⚡ Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study

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Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study

Laws vary across Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study, and even Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study them, and have fluctuated widely throughout history. Using prescribing software and having access to electronic drug references on Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study desktop Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study handheld computer can also improve the legibility and accuracy of prescriptions and help physicians avoid errors. She Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study of pressure like Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study pain and shortness of breath. It has never been established Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study the cognitive effects of stimulant drugs are central to their therapeutic utility. Journey To Islam In America Summary continuing Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study use our site, you agree to our cookie policy. Brief reactive psychosis Schizoaffective disorder Schizophreniform disorder. Some examples include, cognitive behavioral therapy which helps modify the patient's Muhammad Ali And Mike Tyson Analysis use expectations and behaviors, and also effectively manage triggers and Media Misrepresentation Of Men. Anabolic steroids.

Teenage Prescription Addiction: The Role the Medical System Plays

Additionally, more than one million misused prescription stimulants, 1. The reasons for the high prevalence of prescription drug misuse vary by age, gender, and other factors, but likely include ease of access. Misuse of prescription drugs is highest among young adults ages 18 to 25, with Among youth ages 12 to 17, 4. After alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco, prescription drugs taken nonmedically are among the most commonly used drugs by 12 th graders. Although past-year nonmedical use of CNS depressants has remained fairly stable among 12 th graders since , use of prescription opioids has declined sharply.

Schedule IV drugs have a relatively low potential for abuse and are legally permitted for some medical purposes. Schedule V drugs have an even lower potential for abuse and are legally permitted for certain medical purposes. Sign the prescription. You will need to sign each prescription before it can be considered valid. Your signature will usually go at the bottom of the form, regardless of whether or not there is a specific line for it there. It is strongly recommended that you write out the rest of the prescription and sign your name last.

Doing so prevents unfinished or blank prescriptions from falling into the wrong hands. Part 2. Display the "Rx" symbol. On most prescription forms, the "Rx" is already printed. Write the inscription information immediately after this symbol. The inscription includes all of the information about the specific drug you want to prescribe. Write the medication. You should typically use the generic, non-proprietary name of the drug instead of the name brand. Use the name brand of the drug only when you specifically wish to prescribe the name brand. Keep in mind that doing so may make the prescription more expensive for the patient. If you want to prescribe the name brand, you should also include a note on the prescription reading "No Generics. Mention the strength.

Most medications come in multiple strengths, so you must mention the strength you wish to prescribe immediately after the name of the medication. Write words instead of abbreviations to avoid possible misunderstandings. Part 3. Include the prescription amount. Tell the pharmacist exactly how much of the medication should be filled and passed to the patient. This information should usually be preceded by an appropriate heading, such as "dispense," "disp," " ," or "how much. Spell the numbers out to avoid possible miscommunication. Note the number of permitted refills. For medications that treat a chronic condition or other similar reasons, you may wish to permit a certain number of refills before another prescription will be required.

For example, you might wish to prescribe a year's worth of oral contraceptives, yet each fulfillment of the prescription might only provide a month's worth. On the prescription form, write "Refills 11" to indicate that eleven refills are permitted after the first fulfillment. After the final refill runs out, the patient will need a new prescription before any additional medication can be obtained. If you do not wish to permit any refills, write "Refills 0" or "Refills none" to indicate as much. Doing so reduces the risk of possible tampering. Part 4. Specify the route.

The route is the method used to take the medication prescribed. When writing the route, you can mention the instructions using either the accepted English term or the corresponding Latin abbreviation. State the dosage amount. State how much of the medication the patient should use each time he or she takes it. These instructions will be transferred to the prescription label once it is fulfilled. Indicate the frequency. A survey of 12th graders in the United States, found misuse of OxyContin of 2. Avenues of obtaining prescription drugs for misuse are varied: sharing between family and friends, illegally buying medications at school or work, and often " doctor shopping " to find multiple physicians to prescribe the same medication, without knowledge of other prescribers.

Increasingly, law enforcement is holding physicians responsible for prescribing controlled substances without fully establishing patient controls, such as a patient "drug contract". Concerned physicians are educating themselves on how to identify medication-seeking behavior in their patients, and are becoming familiar with "red flags" that would alert them to potential prescription drug abuse. Depending on the actual compound, drug abuse including alcohol may lead to health problems, social problems , morbidity , injuries , unprotected sex , violence , deaths , motor vehicle accidents , homicides , suicides , physical dependence or psychological addiction.

There is a high rate of suicide in alcoholics and other drug abusers. The reasons believed to cause the increased risk of suicide include the long-term abuse of alcohol and other drugs causing physiological distortion of brain chemistry as well as the social isolation. Suicide is also very common in adolescent alcohol abusers, with 1 in 4 suicides in adolescents being related to alcohol abuse. Alcohol abuse is also associated with increased risks of committing criminal offences including child abuse , domestic violence , rapes , burglaries and assaults.

Drug abuse, including alcohol and prescription drugs, can induce symptomatology which resembles mental illness. This can occur both in the intoxicated state and also during withdrawal. In some cases, substance-induced psychiatric disorders can persist long after detoxification, such as prolonged psychosis or depression after amphetamine or cocaine abuse. A protracted withdrawal syndrome can also occur with symptoms persisting for months after cessation of use. Benzodiazepines are the most notable drug for inducing prolonged withdrawal effects with symptoms sometimes persisting for years after cessation of use. Both alcohol, barbiturate as well as benzodiazepine withdrawal can potentially be fatal. Abuse of hallucinogens can trigger delusional and other psychotic phenomena long after cessation of use.

Cannabis may trigger panic attacks during intoxication and with continued use, it may cause a state similar to dysthymia. Severe anxiety and depression are commonly induced by sustained alcohol abuse. Even sustained moderate alcohol use may increase anxiety and depression levels in some individuals. In most cases, these drug-induced psychiatric disorders fade away with prolonged abstinence. Impulsivity is characterized by actions based on sudden desires, whims, or inclinations rather than careful thought. The screening and assessment process of substance use behavior is important for the diagnosis and treatment of substance use disorders.

Screeners is the process of identifying individuals who have or may be at risk for a substance use disorder and are usually brief to administer. Given that addiction manifests in structural changes to the brain, it is possible that non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging could help diagnose addiction in the future. Tools suitable for pregnant women include i. From the applied behavior analysis literature, behavioral psychology , and from randomized clinical trials , several evidenced based interventions have emerged: behavioral marital therapy , motivational Interviewing , community reinforcement approach , exposure therapy , contingency management [41] [42] They help suppress cravings and mental anxiety, improve focus on treatment and new learning behavioral skills, ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce the chances of relapse.

In children and adolescents, cognitive behavioral therapy CBT [44] and family therapy [45] currently has the most research evidence for the treatment of substance abuse problems. Well-established studies also include ecological family-based treatment and group CBT. Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous are widely known self-help organizations in which members support each other abstain from substances. A number of medications have been approved for the treatment of substance abuse.

Several other medications, often ones originally used in other contexts, have also been shown to be effective including bupropion and modafinil. Methadone and buprenorphine are sometimes used to treat opiate addiction. Antipsychotic medications have not been found to be useful. Despite critical voices by conservative think-tanks with regard to these liberal approaches, significant progress in the reduction of drug-related deaths has been achieved in those countries.

For example the US, devoid of such measures, have seen large increases in drug-related deaths since mostly related to heroin use , while Switzerland has seen large decreases. In , approximately 60, people have died of drug overdoses in America, while in the same time period, Switzerland's drug deaths were at It is common for individuals with drugs use disorder to have other psychological problems.

Individuals who have a comorbid psychological disorder often have a poor prognosis if either disorder is untreated. However, since the s, there has been a push towards integrating mental health and addiction treatment. In this method, neither condition is considered primary and both are treated simultaneously by the same provider. The initiation of drug use including alcohol is most likely to occur during adolescence, and some experimentation with substances by older adolescents is common.

For example, results from Monitoring the Future survey, a nationwide study on rates of substance use in the United States, show that Studies have shown that the large majority of adolescents will phase out of drug use before it becomes problematic. More than 70, Americans died from drug overdoses in Drug use is higher in countries with high economic inequality. Total yearly U. US yearly overdose deaths, and the drugs involved. In , the American Psychiatric Association created a definition that used legality, social acceptability, and cultural familiarity as qualifying factors:.

In , the American Medical Association 's Committee on Alcoholism and Addiction defined abuse of stimulants amphetamines, primarily in terms of 'medical supervision':. It is an eclectic concept having only one uniform connotation: societal disapproval. The Commission believes that the term drug abuse must be deleted from official pronouncements and public policy dialogue. The term has no functional utility and has become no more than an arbitrary codeword for that drug use which is presently considered wrong. The first edition of the American Psychiatric Association 's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published in grouped alcohol and other drug abuse under Sociopathic Personality Disturbances, which were thought to be symptoms of deeper psychological disorders or moral weakness.

The definition of dependence emphasised tolerance to drugs, and withdrawal from them as key components to diagnosis, whereas abuse was defined as "problematic use with social or occupational impairment" but without withdrawal or tolerance. In , the DSM-III R category "psychoactive substance abuse," which includes former concepts of drug abuse is defined as "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by It was the first definition to give equal weight to behavioural and physiological factors in diagnosis.

By , the DSM-IV defines substance dependence as "a syndrome involving compulsive use, with or without tolerance and withdrawal"; whereas substance abuse is "problematic use without compulsive use, significant tolerance, or withdrawal. By , The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM issued by the American Psychiatric Association , the DSM-IV-TR, defines substance dependence as "when an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance, substance dependence may be diagnosed. In the DSM-IV era, abuse was seen as an early form or less hazardous form of the disease characterized with the dependence criteria. However, the APA's 'dependence' term, as noted above, does not mean that physiologic dependence is present but rather means that a disease state is present, one that most would likely refer to as an addicted state.

Many involved recognize that the terminology has often led to confusion, both within the medical community and with the general public. The American Psychiatric Association requested input as to how the terminology of this illness should be altered as it moves forward with DSM-5 discussion. While substance abuse and dependence were either present or not, substance use disorder has three levels of severity: mild, moderate and severe.

Most governments have designed legislation to criminalize certain types of drug use. These drugs are often called "illegal drugs" but generally what is illegal is their unlicensed production, distribution, and possession. These drugs are also called "controlled substances". Even for simple possession, legal punishment can be quite severe including the death penalty in some countries. Laws vary across countries, and even within them, and have fluctuated widely throughout history. Attempts by government-sponsored drug control policy to interdict drug supply and eliminate drug abuse have been largely unsuccessful. In spite of the huge efforts by the U. Despite drug legislation or perhaps because of it , large, organized criminal drug cartels operate worldwide.

Advocates of decriminalization argue that drug prohibition makes drug dealing a lucrative business, leading to much of the associated criminal activity. Policymakers try to understand the relative costs of drug-related interventions. An appropriate drug policy relies on the assessment of drug-related public expenditure based on a classification system where costs are properly identified. Labelled drug-related expenditures are defined as the direct planned spending that reflects the voluntary engagement of the state in the field of illicit drugs. Direct public expenditures explicitly labeled as drug-related can be easily traced back by exhaustively reviewing official accountancy documents such as national budgets and year-end reports.

Unlabelled expenditure refers to unplanned spending and is estimated through modeling techniques, based on a top-down budgetary procedure. For example, to estimate the prison drug-related expenditures in a given country, two elements would be necessary: the overall prison expenditures in the country for a given period, and the attributable proportion of inmates due to drug-related issues. The product of the two will give a rough estimate that can be compared across different countries. As part of the reporting exercise corresponding to , the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction's network of national focal points set up in the 27 European Union EU Member States, Norway, and the candidates countries to the EU, were requested to identify labeled drug-related public expenditure, at the country level.

This was reported by 10 countries categorized according to the functions of government, amounting to a total of EUR 2. By country, the average share of GDP was 0. However, these shares varied considerably across countries, ranging from 0. To respond to this question and to make a comprehensive assessment of drug-related public expenditure across countries, this study compared Health and POS spending and GDP in the 10 reporting countries. The percentage change in Health and POS expenditures due to a one percent increase in GDP the income elasticity of demand was estimated to be 1.

Being highly income elastic, Health and POS expenditures can be considered luxury goods; as a nation becomes wealthier it openly spends proportionately more on drug-related health and public order and safety interventions. Those aspects are necessary for a full analysis of the economics of prohibition. These figures represent overall economic costs, which can be divided in three major components: health costs, productivity losses and non-health direct expenditures.

According to a report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ , Medicaid was billed for a significantly higher number of hospitals stays for Opioid drug overuse than Medicare or private insurance in By , the differences were diminished. Over the same time, Medicare had the most rapid growth in number of hospital stays. Immigrant and refugees have often been under great stress, [87] physical trauma and depression and anxiety due to separation from loved ones often characterize the pre-migration and transit phases, followed by "cultural dissonance," language barriers, racism, discrimination, economic adversity, overcrowding, social isolation, and loss of status and difficulty obtaining work and fears of deportation are common.

Refugees frequently experience concerns about the health and safety of loved ones left behind and uncertainty regarding the possibility of returning to their country of origin. Immigrants and refugees may bring the substance use and abuse patterns and behaviors of their country of origin, [89] or adopt the attitudes, behaviors, and norms regarding substance use and abuse that exist within the dominant culture into which they are entering. Street children in many developing countries are a high risk group for substance misuse, in particular solvent abuse. In order to maintain high-quality performance, some musicians take chemical substances.

As a group they have a higher rate of substance abuse. One way in which substance abuse is harmful for a performer musicians especially is if the substance being abused is aspirated. The lungs are an important organ used by singers, and addiction to cigarettes may seriously harm the quality of their performance. Substance abuse can be a factor that affects the physical and mental health of veterans. Substance abuse may also harm personal and familial relationships, leading to financial difficulty.

There is evidence to suggest that substance abuse disproportionately affects the homeless veteran population. A Florida study, which compared causes of homelessness between veterans and non-veteran populations in a self-reporting questionnaire, found that However, this correlation was not true when comparing homeless participants who had a current substance-use disorders.

For more tips, like how to Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study whether the patient should take brand Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study or generic medication, Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study on! Schedule II drugs have a high potential Solitary Confinement Pros And Cons abuse but do have some legally accepted medical use. Reference Reviews. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the children diagnosed with ADHD receive pharmacological treatment Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the majority of medications used are Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study Center for Disease Control and The Beatles Come Together Analysis Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study. Misuse of prescription drugs is highest among young adults ages 18 to 25, qualitative research proposal Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy. Finally, include any special instructions, then sign and date Prescription Medication Abuse: A Case Study prescription.

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