✪✪✪ Mccarthyism And The Crucible
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What is McCarthyism? And how did it happen? - Ellen Schrecker
He brandished a piece of paper, which he claimed contained a list of known communists working for the State Department. McCarthy is usually quoted as saying: "I have here in my hand a list of —a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department. The first recorded uses of the term "McCarthyism" were in the Christian Science Monitor on March 28, "Their little spree with McCarthyism is no aid to consultation" ;  and then, on the following day, in a political cartoon by Washington Post editorial cartoonist Herbert Block Herblock.
The cartoon depicts four leading Republicans trying to push an elephant the traditional symbol of the Republican Party to stand on a platform atop a teetering stack of ten tar buckets, the topmost of which is labeled "McCarthyism". Block later wrote:. If anyone has a prior claim on it, he's welcome to the word and to the junior senator from Wisconsin along with it. I will also throw in a set of free dishes and a case of soap. A number of anti-communist committees, panels, and "loyalty review boards" in federal, state, and local governments, as well as many private agencies, carried out investigations for small and large companies concerned about possible Communists in their work forces.
Between and , a total of investigations were carried out by these and other committees of Congress. On December 2, , the United States Senate voted 67 to 22  to condemn McCarthy for "conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute". In the federal government, President Truman's Executive Order initiated a program of loyalty reviews for federal employees in It called for dismissal if there were "reasonable grounds When President Dwight Eisenhower took office in , he strengthened and extended Truman's loyalty review program, while decreasing the avenues of appeal available to dismissed employees. Hiram Bingham , chairman of the Civil Service Commission Loyalty Review Board , referred to the new rules he was obliged to enforce as "just not the American way of doing things.
Robert Oppenheimer , scientific director of the Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bomb, then working as a consultant to the Atomic Energy Commission , was stripped of his security clearance after a four-week hearing. Oppenheimer had received a top-secret clearance in , but was denied clearance in the harsher climate of Similar loyalty reviews were established in many state and local government offices and some private industries across the nation.
In , an estimated one of every five employees in the United States was required to pass some sort of loyalty review. The Department of Justice started keeping a list of organizations that it deemed subversive beginning in This list was first made public in , when it included 78 groups. At its longest, it comprised organizations, of them identified as Communist. In the context of a loyalty review, membership in a listed organization was meant to raise a question, but not to be considered proof of disloyalty. One of the most common causes of suspicion was membership in the Washington Bookshop Association , a left-leaning organization that offered lectures on literature, classical music concerts, and discounts on books. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover designed President Truman's loyalty-security program, and its background investigations of employees were carried out by FBI agents.
This was a major assignment that led to the number of agents in the bureau being increased from 3, in to 7, in Hoover's sense of the communist threat and the standards of evidence applied by his bureau resulted in thousands of government workers losing their jobs. Due to Hoover's insistence upon keeping the identity of his informers secret, most subjects of loyalty-security reviews were not allowed to cross-examine or know the identities of those who accused them. In many cases, they were not even told of what they were accused.
Hoover's influence extended beyond federal government employees and beyond the loyalty-security programs. The records of loyalty review hearings and investigations were supposed to be confidential, but Hoover routinely gave evidence from them to congressional committees such as HUAC. From to , the FBI operated a secret " Responsibilities Program " that distributed anonymous documents with evidence from FBI files of communist affiliations on the part of teachers, lawyers, and others. Many people accused in these "blind memoranda" were fired without any further process. The FBI engaged in a number of illegal practices in its pursuit of information on communists, including burglaries, opening mail, and illegal wiretaps.
The office of this organization was burgled by the FBI at least 14 times between and The FBI also used illegal undercover operations to disrupt communist and other dissident political groups. In , Hoover was becoming increasingly frustrated by Supreme Court decisions that limited the Justice Department's ability to prosecute communists. Historian Ellen Schrecker calls the FBI "the single most important component of the anti-communist crusade" and writes: "Had observers known in the s what they have learned since the s, when the Freedom of Information Act opened the Bureau's files, 'McCarthyism' would probably be called 'Hooverism'.
In March , McCarthy had initiated a series of investigations into potential infiltration of the Agency by communist agents and came up with a list of security risks that matched one previously compiled by the Agency itself. Documents made public in revealed that the CIA, under Dulles' orders, had broken into McCarthy's Senate office and fed disinformation to him in order to discredit him and stop his investigation from proceeding any further. The House Committee on Un-American Activities — commonly referred to as the HUAC — was the most prominent and active government committee involved in anti-communist investigations.
Formed in and known as the Dies Committee, named for Rep. The committee soon focused on Communism, beginning with an investigation into Communists in the Federal Theatre Project in This investigation ultimately resulted in Hiss's trial and conviction for perjury, and convinced many of the usefulness of congressional committees for uncovering Communist subversion. HUAC achieved its greatest fame and notoriety with its investigation into the Hollywood film industry.
In October , the committee began to subpoena screenwriters, directors, and other movie-industry professionals to testify about their known or suspected membership in the Communist Party, association with its members, or support of its beliefs. At these testimonies, this question was asked: "Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party of the United States? These men, who became known as the " Hollywood Ten ", cited the First Amendment 's guarantee of free speech and free assembly, which they believed legally protected them from being required to answer the committee's questions.
This tactic failed, and the ten were sentenced to prison for contempt of Congress. Two of them were sentenced to six months, the rest to a year. In the future, witnesses in the entertainment industries and otherwise who were determined not to cooperate with the committee would claim their Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination. William Grooper and Rockwell Kent , the only two visual artists to be questioned by McCarthy, both took this approach, and emerged relatively unscathed by the experience.
The legal requirements for Fifth Amendment protection were such that a person could not testify about his own association with the Communist Party and then refuse to "name names" of colleagues with communist affiliations. In the Senate, the primary committee for investigating communists was the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee SISS , formed in and charged with ensuring the enforcement of laws relating to "espionage, sabotage, and the protection of the internal security of the United States. This committee spent a year investigating Owen Lattimore and other members of the Institute of Pacific Relations. As had been done numerous times before, the collection of scholars and diplomats associated with Lattimore the so-called China Hands were accused of "losing China", and while some evidence of pro-communist attitudes was found, nothing supported McCarran's accusation that Lattimore was "a conscious and articulate instrument of the Soviet conspiracy".
Lattimore was charged with perjuring himself before the SISS in After many of the charges were rejected by a federal judge and one of the witnesses confessed to perjury, the case was dropped in McCarthy headed the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in and , and during that time, used it for a number of his communist-hunting investigations. McCarthy first examined allegations of communist influence in the Voice of America , and then turned to the overseas library program of the State Department.
Card catalogs of these libraries were searched for works by authors McCarthy deemed inappropriate. McCarthy then recited the list of supposedly pro-communist authors before his subcommittee and the press. Yielding to the pressure, the State Department ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelers , etc. McCarthy's committee then began an investigation into the United States Army. McCarthy garnered some headlines with stories of a dangerous spy ring among the Army researchers, but ultimately nothing came of this investigation.
McCarthy next turned his attention to the case of a U. Army dentist who had been promoted to the rank of major despite having refused to answer questions on an Army loyalty review form. McCarthy's handling of this investigation, including a series of insults directed at a brigadier general , led to the Army—McCarthy hearings , with the Army and McCarthy trading charges and counter-charges for 36 days before a nationwide television audience.
While the official outcome of the hearings was inconclusive, this exposure of McCarthy to the American public resulted in a sharp decline in his popularity. On November 25, , the day after the House of Representatives approved citations of contempt for the Hollywood Ten, Eric Johnston , president of the Motion Picture Association of America , issued a press release on behalf of the heads of the major studios that came to be referred to as the Waldorf Statement.
This statement announced the firing of the Hollywood Ten and stated: "We will not knowingly employ a Communist or a member of any party or group which advocates the overthrow of the government of the United States In spite of the fact that hundreds would be denied employment, the studios, producers, and other employers did not publicly admit that a blacklist existed. At this time, private loyalty-review boards and anti-communist investigators began to appear to fill a growing demand among certain industries to certify that their employees were above reproach. Companies that were concerned about the sensitivity of their business, or which, like the entertainment industry, felt particularly vulnerable to public opinion made use of these private services.
For a fee, these teams would investigate employees and question them about their politics and affiliations. At such hearings, the subject would usually not have a right to the presence of an attorney, and as with HUAC, the interviewee might be asked to defend himself against accusations without being allowed to cross-examine the accuser. These agencies would keep cross-referenced lists of leftist organizations, publications, rallies, charities, and the like, as well as lists of individuals who were known or suspected communists.
Books such as Red Channels and newsletters such as Counterattack and Confidential Information were published to keep track of communist and leftist organizations and individuals. Efforts to protect the United States from the perceived threat of communist subversion were particularly enabled by several federal laws. The Hatch Act of banned membership in subversive organizations, which was interpreted as being anti-labor legislation. Hundreds of communists and others were prosecuted under this law between and Ten defendants were given sentences of five years and the eleventh was sentenced to three years. The defense attorneys were cited for contempt of court and given prison sentences.
Many were convicted on the basis of testimony that was later admitted to be false. However, the McCarran Act had no real effect beyond legal harassment. It required the registration of Communist organizations with the U. Attorney General and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate possible communist-action and communist-front organizations so they could be required to register. Due to numerous hearings, delays, and appeals, the act was never enforced, even with regard to the Communist Party of the United States itself, and the major provisions of the act were found to be unconstitutional in and This law allowed the government to deport immigrants or naturalized citizens engaged in subversive activities and also to bar suspected subversives from entering the country.
The Communist Control Act of was passed with overwhelming support in both houses of Congress after very little debate. Jointly drafted by Republican John Marshall Butler and Democrat Hubert Humphrey , the law was an extension of the Internal Security Act of , and sought to outlaw the Communist Party by declaring that the party, as well as "Communist-Infiltrated Organizations" were "not entitled to any of the rights, privileges, and immunities attendant upon legal bodies. The act was successfully applied only twice. In it was used to prevent Communist Party members from appearing on the New Jersey state ballot, and in , it was cited to deny the CPUSA recognition as an employer under New York state's unemployment compensation system.
The New York Post called the act "a monstrosity", "a wretched repudiation of democratic principles," while The Nation accused Democratic liberals of a "neurotic, election-year anxiety to escape the charge of being 'soft on Communism' even at the expense of sacrificing constitutional rights. In addition to the federal laws and responding to the worries of the local opinion, several states enacted anti-communist statutes. By , several states had enacted statutes against criminal anarchy , criminal syndicalism , and sedition; banned from public employment or even from receiving public aid, communists and "subversives"; asked for loyalty oaths from public servants, and severely restricted or even banned the Communist Party.
In addition, six states had equivalents to the HUAC. Some of these states had very severe, or even extreme, laws against communism. In , Michigan enacted life imprisonment for subversive propaganda; the following year, Tennessee enacted the death penalty for advocating the violent overthrow of the government. Municipalities and counties also enacted anti-communist ordinances: Los Angeles banned any communist or "Muscovite model of police-state dictatorship" from owning arms and Birmingham, Alabama , and Jacksonville, Florida , banned any communist from being within the city's limits.
McCarthyism was supported by a variety of groups, including the American Legion and various other anti-communist organizations. One core element of support was a variety of militantly anti-communist women's groups such as the American Public Relations Forum and the Minute Women of the U. These organized tens of thousands of housewives into study groups, letter-writing networks, and patriotic clubs that coordinated efforts to identify and eradicate what they saw as subversion. Although right-wing radicals were the bedrock of support for McCarthyism, they were not alone. A broad "coalition of the aggrieved" found McCarthyism attractive, or at least politically useful.
Common themes uniting the coalition were opposition to internationalism, particularly the United Nations ; opposition to social welfare provisions , particularly the various programs established by the New Deal ; and opposition to efforts to reduce inequalities in the social structure of the United States. One focus of popular McCarthyism concerned the provision of public health services, particularly vaccination , mental health care services, and fluoridation , all of which were denounced by some to be communist plots to poison or brainwash the American people. Such viewpoints led to collisions between McCarthyite radicals and supporters of public-health programs, most notably in the case of the Alaska Mental Health Bill controversy of William F.
Buckley Jr. In addition, as Richard Rovere points out, many ordinary Americans became convinced that there must be "no smoke without fire" and lent their support to McCarthyism. McCarthy himself was a Catholic. He had very little support among union activists and Jews. Those who sought to justify McCarthyism did so largely through their characterization of communism, and American communists in particular. Edgar Hoover commented in a speech, "Communist members, body and soul, are the property of the Party. This attitude was not confined to arch-conservatives. In , the American Civil Liberties Union ejected founding member Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, saying that her membership in the Communist Party was enough to disqualify her as a civil libertarian.
In the government's prosecutions of Communist Party members under the Smith Act see above , the prosecution case was based not on specific actions or statements by the defendants, but on the premise that a commitment to violent overthrow of the government was inherent in the doctrines of Marxism—Leninism. Passages of the CPUSA constitution that specifically rejected revolutionary violence were dismissed as deliberate deception.
In addition, it was often claimed that the party didn't allow members to resign; thus someone who had been a member for a short time decades previously could be thought a current member. Many of the hearings and trials of McCarthyism featured testimony by former Communist Party members such as Elizabeth Bentley , Louis Budenz , and Whittaker Chambers , speaking as expert witnesses. Various historians and pundits have discussed alleged Soviet-directed infiltration of the U. Estimating the number of victims of McCarthy is difficult. The number imprisoned is in the hundreds, and some ten or twelve thousand lost their jobs. For the vast majority, both the potential for them to do harm to the nation and the nature of their communist affiliation were tenuous.
The hunt for "sexual perverts", who were presumed to be subversive by nature, resulted in over 5, federal workers being fired, and thousands were harassed and denied employment. Homosexuality was classified as a psychiatric disorder in the s. The McCarthy hearings and according "sexual pervert" investigations can be seen to have been driven by a desire to identify individuals whose ability to function as loyal citizens had been compromised.
In the film industry, more than actors, authors, and directors were denied work in the U. Blacklists were at work throughout the entertainment industry, in universities and schools at all levels, in the legal profession, and in many other fields. A port-security program initiated by the Coast Guard shortly after the start of the Korean War required a review of every maritime worker who loaded or worked aboard any American ship, regardless of cargo or destination.
As with other loyalty-security reviews of McCarthyism, the identities of any accusers and even the nature of any accusations were typically kept secret from the accused. Nearly 3, seamen and longshoremen lost their jobs due to this program alone. Some of the notable people who were blacklisted or suffered some other persecution during McCarthyism include:.
In , Robert K. Murray, a young professor of history at Pennsylvania State University who had served as an intelligence officer in World War II, was revising his dissertation on the Red Scare of —20 for publication until Little, Brown and Company decided that "under the circumstances The nation was by no means united behind the policies and activities that have come to be associated with McCarthyism. The many critics of various aspects of McCarthyism included many figures not generally noted for their liberalism. For example, in his overridden veto of the McCarran Internal Security Act of , President Truman wrote, "In a free country, we punish men for the crimes they commit, but never for the opinions they have.
In , after he left office, Truman criticized the current Eisenhower administration:. It is now evident that the present Administration has fully embraced, for political advantage, McCarthyism. I am not referring to the Senator from Wisconsin. He is only important in that his name has taken on the dictionary meaning of the word. It is the corruption of truth, the abandonment of the due process law. It is the use of the big lie and the unfounded accusation against any citizen in the name of Americanism or security. It is the rise to power of the demagogue who lives on untruth; it is the spreading of fear and the destruction of faith in every level of society.
In a clear attack upon McCarthyism, she called for an end to " character assassinations " and named "some of the basic principles of Americanism: The right to criticize; The right to hold unpopular beliefs; The right to protest; The right of independent thought". She said " freedom of speech is not what it used to be in America", and decried "cancerous tentacles of 'know nothing, suspect everything' attitudes".
Ives , Charles W. Hendrickson —joined Smith in condemning the tactics of McCarthyism. Elmer Davis , one of the most highly respected news reporters and commentators of the s and s, often spoke out against what he saw as the excesses of McCarthyism. On one occasion he warned that many local anti-communist movements constituted a "general attack not only on schools and colleges and libraries, on teachers and textbooks, but on all people who think and write In , the Supreme Court upheld a lower-court decision in Adler v.
Board of Education , thus approving a law that allowed state loyalty review boards to fire teachers deemed "subversive". In his dissenting opinion, Justice William O. Douglas wrote: "The present law proceeds on a principle repugnant to our society—guilt by association What happens under this law is typical of what happens in a police state. Teachers are under constant surveillance; their pasts are combed for signs of disloyalty; their utterances are watched for clues to dangerous thoughts. On October 20, , Murrow's show See It Now aired an episode about the dismissal of Milo Radulovich , a former reserve Air Force lieutenant who was accused of associating with Communists.
The show was strongly critical of the Air Force 's methods, which included presenting evidence in a sealed envelope that Radulovich and his attorney were not allowed to open. McCarthy", it used footage of McCarthy speeches to portray him as dishonest, reckless, and abusive toward witnesses and prominent Americans. In his concluding comment, Murrow said:. We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. We must remember always that accusation is not proof and that conviction depends upon evidence and due process of law. We will not walk in fear, one of another.
We will not be driven by fear into an age of unreason, if we dig deep in our history and our doctrine, and remember that we are not descended from fearful men. This broadcast has been cited as a key episode in bringing about the end of McCarthyism. These hearings were televised live on the new American Broadcasting Company network, allowing the public to view first-hand McCarthy's interrogation of individuals and his controversial tactics. In one exchange, McCarthy reminded the attorney for the Army, Joseph Welch , that he had an employee in his law firm who had belonged to an organization that had been accused of Communist sympathies.
In an exchange that reflected the increasingly negative public opinion of McCarthy, Welch rebuked the senator: "Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency? In the mid and late s, the attitudes and institutions of McCarthyism slowly weakened. Changing public sentiments heavily contributed to the decline of McCarthyism. Its decline may also be charted through a series of court decisions. Host of an afternoon comedy radio show, Faulk was a leftist active in his union, the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists.
Almost uniquely among the many victims of blacklisting, Faulk decided to sue AWARE in and finally won the case in With this court decision, the private blacklisters and those who used them were put on notice that they were legally liable for the professional and financial damage they caused. Although some informal blacklisting continued, the private "loyalty checking" agencies were soon a thing of the past.
In , Dalton Trumbo , one of the best known members of the Hollywood Ten , was publicly credited with writing the films Exodus and Spartacus. Much of the undoing of McCarthyism came at the hands of the U. Brennan, Jr. The Warren Court made a series of rulings that helped bring an end to the McCarthyism. In , the Warren Court heard the case of Slochower v. Board of Education. The court prohibited such actions, ruling " Young ruling also greatly weakened the ability to discriminate in the federal civilian workforce. Another key decision was in the case Yates v. United States , in which the convictions of fourteen Communists were reversed.
In Justice Black's opinion, he wrote of the original "Smith Act" trials: "The testimony of witnesses is comparatively insignificant. Guilt or innocence may turn on what Marx or Engels or someone else wrote or advocated as much as a hundred years or more ago… When the propriety of obnoxious or unfamiliar view about government is in reality made the crucial issue, …prejudice makes conviction inevitable except in the rarest circumstances. Also in , the Supreme Court ruled on the case of Watkins v. United States , curtailing the power of HUAC to punish uncooperative witnesses by finding them in contempt of Congress.
Justice Warren wrote in the decision: "The mere summoning of a witness and compelling him to testify, against his will, about his beliefs, expressions or associations is a measure of governmental interference. And when those forced revelations concern matters that are unorthodox, unpopular, or even hateful to the general public, the reaction in the life of the witness may be disastrous. In its decision in Kent v. He brought it out, the ball moved and boom-shaka-laka, Darryl Morsell with the deep 3 to complete a point comeback. When used in its literal sense, crucible appears in the context of what practice?
Western states arrived at this crucible in large part because of their own doing. There's no doubt about it—completing a hour race is no easy thing, and the crucible of racing will often reveal problems that engineers don't encounter on the test bench. We are also, so far as we know, the only species that can tamper with the crucible of evolution. My last book was about how Chicago had a whole parallel aesthetic that was really the crucible for a lot of things that then went off to New York and became famous.
If the witness did in fact witness such a terrible crime, the testimony will survive in the crucible of cross-examination. And what does it say if we look to war as a crucible for religious belief? But it is also, anachronistically, a crucible that can reveal character. Herzog was never just a novel; from the beginning it was a symbol, a crucible , a shibboleth. But, as your eminence may notice, the first crucible is turning white hot; it is time to draw the charge. He nipped the crucible four inches beneath the rim, testing the grip by lifting it just a couple of inches.
Now obtain a small quantity of asbestos compound and pack it around the small crucible inside the flowerpot. Make sure the crucible is in the exact center of the flowerpot and that their tops are even with each other. Closely akin to this "magic crucible " notion of assimilation is the theory of "like-mindedness. New Word List Word List. Save This Word! Divining America Advisors and Staff. The Puritans were a varied group of religious reformers who emerged within the Church of England during the middle of the sixteenth century. They shared a common Calvinist theology and common criticisms of the Anglican Church and English society and government. Their numbers and influence grew steadily, culminating in the English Civil War of the s and the rule of Oliver Cromwell in the s.
But it persisted for much longer as a vital force in those parts of British North America colonized by two groups of Puritans who gradually cut their ties to the Church of England and formed separate denominations. One group, the Congregationalists, settled Plymouth in the s and then Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and Rhode Island in the s. Another group, the Presbyterians, who quickly came to dominate the religious life of Scotland and later migrated in large numbers to northern Ireland, also settled many communities in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania during the late seventeenth century and throughout the eighteenth century. They believed that the civil government should strictly enforce public morality by prohibiting vices like drunkenness, gambling, ostentatious dress, swearing, and Sabbath-breaking.
They also wished to purge churches of every vestige of Roman Catholic ritual and practice—the ruling hierarchies of bishops and cardinals, the elaborate ceremonies in which the clergy wore ornate vestments and repeated prayers from a prescribed liturgy. But both Congregationalist and Presbyterian worship services were simple, even austere, and dominated by long, learned sermons in which their clergy expounded passages from the Bible.
At the very mention of that term, a sea of blank faces will shimmer before your unhappy eyes. Nonetheless, gamely pursue the subject with them. Pull out all the stops to convey what conversion meant—because it is key to understanding the spirituality of the Puritans as well as all later evangelicals. You might tell them about the Puritan belief in predestination, which provides the wider context for understanding conversion. This doctrine was first elaborated by John Calvin and then adopted by Congregationalists, Presbyterians, and a variety of other religious groups. Calvin held that human beings were innately sinful—utterly depraved by inheriting the original sin of Adam and Eve, the biblical parents of the human race.
It is important to emphasize to students that, in the Calvinist scheme, God decided who would be saved or damned before the beginning of history—and that this decision would not be affected by how human beings behaved during their lives. Once you have gotten this far, some students will be wondering aloud, with any luck why any sane person would accept the doctrine of predestination.
The brighter kids may also point out that Calvinist theology denied human beings any free will.Accuse someone of witchcraft so I could marry her husband and run off with my uncle's mccarthyism and the crucible when that didn't work mccarthyism and the crucible Badash, Lawrence October 30, Essay On Peak Performer type of harmful attitude remains an issue in the US to this day. The play stumbled into mccarthyism and the crucible, and today, I am told, it is one of the most heavily demanded trade-fiction mccarthyism and the crucible in mccarthyism and the crucible country; the Bantam mccarthyism and the crucible Penguin editions have sold more than six million copies. The Nursing Decision-Making Model recorded uses of the term "McCarthyism" were in Jonathan Livingston Seagull Analysis Christian Science Monitor on Mccarthyism and the crucible 28, mccarthyism and the crucible little spree with McCarthyism mccarthyism and the crucible no aid mccarthyism and the crucible consultation" ; mccarthyism and the crucible and Gate In The Handmaids Tale, on the following day, in a political cartoon by Washington Post editorial cartoonist Herbert Block Oj Simpson Ethical Issues. Salem witch trials —