⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Ship Commanded By Columbus

Tuesday, January 04, 2022 6:31:10 PM

Ship Commanded By Columbus

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Life on a Ship During Christopher Columbus' Era

His mother was of English ancestry. His father, Estevao da Gama, was head of one of Portugal's most noble families, had a distinguished military history, and was the provincial governor. When Vasco grew up he joined the navy, where he learned navigational skills and served with distinction in the war against Castille. Bartholomew Diaz personally supervised preparations for da Gama's voyage. The ordinary caravel used by Diaz was not considered sufficient - it was not robust enough, and had insufficient cargo capacity. The crew would also need better protection for the long journey ahead. The fleet consisted of four ships, two of which had been specially constructed. These were naos : square-rigged ships of shallow draught weighing about tons. Berrio Nicolau Coelho commanded a lanteen-rigged caravel of about tons, and the fourth ship was a store ship.

The crew of included three experienced pilots: Pedro de Alemquer, the pilot who had sailed with Diaz in , Joao de Coimbra and Pero de Escolar. Vasco da Gama and his fleet sailed from Lisbon on 8 July Bartholomew Diaz himself acted as pilot to the Canary Islands, which they reached on 15 July, and on to the Cape Verde islands. On board were the latest maps and navigational instruments. Between 26 July and 3 August the crew prepared for the next stage of their voyage without Diaz, who advised them to take an unusual course: west-south west in a huge loop out into the Atlantic to avoid the doldrums in the Gulf of Guinea. They were km miles from Brazil before the south-westerly winds blew them back towards southern Africa.

They had been out of sight of land for 13 weeks - much longer than Columbus on his trans-Atlantic voyage - and had travelled a distance of more than 7,km 4, miles from Cape Verde. They would now be sailing in unknown waters, having almost reached the farthest extent of Diaz's explorations. Two days later, after leaving St Helena Bay, they rounded the Cape of Good Hope and landed at Mossel Bay, where they traded trinkets with local people in exchange for an ox. The store ship was burnt, and the supplies re-distributed among the other ships. On Christmas Day the three remaining ships were sailing northwards along the east coast of what is now South Africa and called the country 'Natal'.

By 11 January they were exploring the mouth of Copper River 'Rio Cobre' , named after the copper ornaments worn by the local population. Moving slowly north east against a strong south-westerly current, they travelled 2,km 1, miles up the coast until, on 2 March , they sailed into the port of Mozambique. This was one of a chain of Muslim city states, at the southernmost point of Muslim influence on the east African coast. When da Gama tried to trade with the ruling Sultan his paltry gifts were scorned. Despite sparing no expense to equip the expedition, the Portuguese had totally underestimated the quality of goods being traded in this part of the world - cotton, ivory, gold and pearls. They sailed on to Mombassa, 1,km miles north, in the hope of more lucrative trade, but fared no better there.

Fortunately the ruler of Malindi was more welcoming, and during his stay there da Gama recruited a knowledgeable and efficient pilot, possibly the great Arab navigator Ahmed Ibn Majid, to show the explorers the route to India. Da Gama's men were reduced to bartering on the waterfront to trade what goods they could for the homeward voyage. India's Malabar Coast was at the centre of the spice trade - it was the main outlet for Kerala's large pepper crop - and the place where ships from the Indonesian Spice Islands came to trade cloves with Arab merchants from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.

The newcomers stayed for three months, and were initially well received by the Hindu ruler, the Zamorin. But the Muslim traders also held considerable influence at court, and were unwilling to relinquish control of the spice trade to the Christian visitors - and once again the goods da Gama was offering to trade were inadequate. Relations deteriorated, and da Gama's men were reduced to bartering on the waterfront to trade what goods they could for the homeward voyage. It was a terrible voyage back to Malindi. The pilot could not be found, the monsoons were against them and the 3,km 2, mile journey took three months.

Da Gama's crew suffered terribly from scurvy and 30 men died. Only the kindness of the Sultan of Malindi saved the rest of the crew, with his gifts of fresh meat and oranges. But now, with too few men alive to sail three ships, the St Raphael was burnt. Keen to get home, the adventurers rounded the Cape of Good Hope on 20 March , and sailed up the west coast of Africa. Paolo da Gama, who had been very compassionate to the sick and ailing throughout the voyage, finally succumbed to illness himself, and died on the Azores.

Vasco da Gama arrived in Lisbon on 18 September and rode in triumph through the city. He had been away for more than two years, travelled 38,km 24, miles and spent days at sea. Only 54 of the original crew of had survived, but King Manuel was very pleased. What had been done once could be done again. The Muslim merchants were outraged at the attempt to steal their trade, and killed 50 of Cabral's men. A second voyage, involving 13 ships and 1, men, was immediately dispatched under Pedro Alvares Cabral to secure the sea route to India, and the fleet reached Calicut in under six months. This time the Portuguese were better prepared and brought lavish goods with which to tempt the Zamorin into a trade agreement.

The Muslim merchants were outraged at this attempt to steal their trade, and killed 50 of Cabral's men. They also fought against European oppression, and, in some instances, hindered the systematic spread of colonization. Christopher Columbus likely transported the first Africans to the Americas in the late s on his expeditions to the island of Hispaniola, now Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Their exact status, whether free or enslaved, remains disputed. But the timeline fits with what we know of the origins of the slave trade. European trade of enslaved Africans began in the s. In the region that would become the United States, there were no enslaved Africans before the Spanish occupation of Florida in the early 16th century, according to Linda Heywood and John Thornton , professors at Boston University and co-authors of Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles and the Foundation of the Americas, That year, some of these enslaved Africans became part of a Spanish expedition to establish an outpost in what is now South Carolina.

They rebelled, preventing the Spanish from founding the colony. Augustine ," says Heywood. Africans also played a role in England's early colonization efforts. He and his cousin, John Hawkins, made three voyages to Guinea and Sierra Leone and enslaved between 1, and 1, Africans. Although not part of present-day America, Africans from the West Indies were also present in the English colony of Bermuda in , where they provided expert knowledge of tobacco cultivation to the Virginia Company. From an Anglo-American perspective, is considered the beginning of slavery, just like Jamestown and Plymouth symbolize the beginnings of "America" from an English-speaking point of view. But divorcing the idea of North America's first enslaved people from the overall context of slavery in the Americas, especially when the U.

In the context of the broader Atlantic world, the colony and institution of slavery developed from a chain of events involving multiple actors. Still, U. While Heywood and Thornton acknowledge that remains a key date for slavery in America, they also argue that focusing too much on the first enslaved people at Jamestown can distort our understanding of history. In , slavery, as codified by law, did not yet exist in Virginia or elsewhere in places that would later become the United States.

But any question about the status of Black people in the colonies—free, enslaved or indentured servants—was made clear with the passage of the Virginia Slave Codes of , a series of laws that stripped away legal rights and legalized the barbaric and dehumanizing nature of slavery.

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