🔥🔥🔥 The Crusades Thomas Madden Summary

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The Crusades Thomas Madden Summary



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The Crusades: A Concise Overview for Students

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Bacon showed an uncompromising commitment to experimentation. Despite this, he did not make any great scientific discoveries during his lifetime. This may be because he was not the most able experimenter. There are and can be only two ways of searching into and discovering truth. The one flies from the senses and particulars to the most general axioms, and from these principles, the truth of which it takes for settled and immoveable, proceeds to judgment and to the discovery of middle axioms. And this way is now in fashion. The other derives axioms from the senses and particulars, rising by a gradual and unbroken ascent, so that it arrives at the most general axioms last of all.

This is the true way, but as yet untried. Lastly, we have three that raise the former discoveries by experiments into greater observations, axioms, and aphorisms. These we call interpreters of nature. His aim was to create a complete science that he hoped would overthrow the Aristotelian system and establish himself as the sole architect [64] of a new system of guiding principles for scientific research. This work was continued and clarified in his treatise, Discourse on Method , and in his Meditations. Descartes describes the intriguing and disciplined thought experiments he used to arrive at the idea we instantly associate with him: I think therefore I am. This rule allowed Descartes to progress beyond his own thoughts and judge that there exist extended bodies outside of his own thoughts.

Descartes published seven sets of objections to the Meditations from various sources [66] along with his replies to them. Despite his apparent departure from the Aristotelian system, a number of his critics felt that Descartes had done little more than replace the primary premises of Aristotle with those of his own. Descartes says as much himself in a letter written in to the translator of Principles of Philosophy,. Whereas Aristotle purported to arrive at his first principles by induction, Descartes believed he could obtain them using reason only. Unlike Bacon, Descartes successfully applied his own ideas in practice.

He made significant contributions to science, in particular in aberration-corrected optics. His work in analytic geometry was a necessary precedent to differential calculus and instrumental in bringing mathematical analysis to bear on scientific matters. During the period of religious conservatism brought about by the Reformation and Counter-Reformation, Galileo Galilei unveiled his new science of motion. Whereas Aristotle thought that a science should be demonstrated from first principles, Galileo had used experiments as a research tool. Galileo nevertheless presented his treatise in the form of mathematical demonstrations without reference to experimental results.

It is important to understand that this in itself was a bold and innovative step in terms of scientific method. The usefulness of mathematics in obtaining scientific results was far from obvious. Whether it is because Galileo was realistic about the acceptability of presenting experimental results as evidence or because he himself had doubts about the epistemological status of experimental findings is not known.

Nevertheless, it is not in his Latin treatise on motion that we find reference to experiments, but in his supplementary dialogues written in the Italian vernacular. In these dialogues experimental results are given, although Galileo may have found them inadequate for persuading his audience. As an example, in the dramatic dialogue titled Third Day from his Two New Sciences , Galileo has the characters of the dialogue discuss an experiment involving two free falling objects of differing weight. An outline of the Aristotelian view is offered by the character Simplicio. Salviati then asks the two other characters of the dialogue to consider a thought experiment whereby two stones of differing weights are tied together before being released.

But this leads to a contradiction, since the two stones together make a heavier object than either stone apart, the heavier object should in fact fall with a speed greater than that of either stone. From this contradiction, Salviati concludes that Aristotle must, in fact, be wrong and the objects will fall at the same speed regardless of their weight, a conclusion that is borne out by experiment. Both Bacon and Descartes wanted to provide a firm foundation for scientific thought that avoided the deceptions of the mind and senses.

Bacon envisaged that foundation as essentially empirical, whereas Descartes provides a metaphysical foundation for knowledge. If there were any doubts about the direction in which scientific method would develop, they were set to rest by the success of Isaac Newton. To explain all nature is too difficult a task for any one man or even for any one age. George Boole and William Stanley Jevons also wrote on the principles of reasoning. Attempts to systematize a scientific method were confronted in the midth century by the problem of induction, a positivist logic formulation which, in short, asserts that nothing can be known with certainty except what is actually observed.

David Hume took empiricism to the skeptical extreme; among his positions was that there is no logical necessity that the future should resemble the past, thus we are unable to justify inductive reasoning itself by appealing to its past success. His work appeared in Danish, most accessibly in public lectures, which he translated into German, French, English, and occasionally Latin. But some of his views go beyond Kant:. Of course, I speak here about the method as manifested in the process of the human intellect itself, not as found in textbooks, where the laws of nature which have been abstracted from the consequent experiences are placed first because they are required to explain the experiences. When the empiricist in his regression towards general laws of nature meets the metaphysician in his progression, science will reach its perfection.

By , he felt confident enough in his beliefs that he resolved to demonstrate them in a public lecture, and in fact observed a small magnetic effect from a galvanic circuit i. In John Herschel — published A Preliminary Discourse on the study of Natural Philosophy , setting out the principles of science. Possible causes could be inferred by analogy to known causes of similar phenomena.

William Whewell — regarded his History of the Inductive Sciences, from the Earliest to the Present Time to be an introduction to the Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences which analyzes the method exemplified in the formation of ideas. Whewell examines ideas and attempts to construct science by uniting ideas to facts. He analyses induction into three steps:. Upon these follow special techniques applicable for quantity, such as the method of least squares, curves, means, and special methods depending on resemblance such as pattern matching, the method of gradation, and the method of natural classification such as cladistics.

However, where Herschel held that the origin of new biological species would be found in a natural rather than a miraculous process, Whewell opposed this and considered that no natural cause had been shown for adaptation so an unknown divine cause was appropriate. Mill may be regarded as the final exponent of the empirical school of philosophy begun by John Locke, whose fundamental characteristic is the duty incumbent upon all thinkers to investigate for themselves rather than to accept the authority of others.

Knowledge must be based on experience. In the midth century Claude Bernard was also influential, especially in bringing the scientific method to medicine. In his discourse on scientific method, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine , he described what makes a scientific theory good and what makes a scientist a true discoverer. Unlike many scientific writers of his time, Bernard wrote about his own experiments and thoughts, and used the first person. Jevons then frames those steps in terms of probability, which he then applied to economic laws.

Ernest Nagel notes that Jevons and Whewell were not the first writers to argue for the centrality of the hypothetico-deductive method in the logic of science. In the late 19th century, Charles Sanders Peirce proposed a schema that would turn out to have considerable influence in the further development of scientific method generally. He thus placed induction and deduction in a complementary rather than competitive context the latter of which had been the primary trend at least since David Hume a century before. Secondly, and of more direct importance to scientific method, Peirce put forth the basic schema for hypothesis-testing that continues to prevail today.

Extracting the theory of inquiry from its raw materials in classical logic, he refined it in parallel with the early development of symbolic logic to address the then-current problems in scientific reasoning. Peirce examined and articulated the three fundamental modes of reasoning that play a role in scientific inquiry today, the processes that are currently known as abductive, deductive, and inductive inference. Thirdly, he played a major role in the progress of symbolic logic itself — indeed this was his primary specialty. Charles S. Peirce was also a pioneer in statistics. Peirce held that science achieves statistical probabilities, not certainties, and that chance, a veering from law, is very real. Most of his statistical writings promote the frequency interpretation of probability objective ratios of cases , and many of his writings express skepticism about and criticize the use of probability when such models are not based on objective randomization.

Peirce sometimes with Jastrow investigated the probability judgments of experimental subjects, pioneering decision analysis. Peirce was one of the founders of statistics. With a repeated measures design, he introduced blinded, controlled randomized experiments before Fisher. He used logistic regression, correlation, and smoothing, and improved the treatment of outliers. See the historical books of Stephen Stigler. Fisher, Jerzy Neyman, Frank P. Ramsey, Bruno de Finetti, and Karl Popper. Karl Popper — is generally credited with providing major improvements in the understanding of the scientific method in the mid-to-late 20th century.

In Popper published The Logic of Scientific Discovery , which repudiated the by then traditional observationalist-inductivist account of the scientific method. He advocated empirical falsifiability as the criterion for distinguishing scientific work from non-science. According to Popper, scientific theory should make predictions preferably predictions not made by a competing theory which can be tested and the theory rejected if these predictions are shown not to be correct.

Following Peirce and others, he argued that science would best progress using deductive reasoning as its primary emphasis, known as critical rationalism. Before Fleck, scientific fact was thought to spring fully formed in the view of Max Jammer, for example , when a gestation period is now recognized to be essential before acceptance of a phenomenon as fact. Critics of Popper, chiefly Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend and Imre Lakatos, rejected the idea that there exists a single method that applies to all science and could account for its progress.

In Kuhn published the influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions which suggested that scientists worked within a series of paradigms, and argued there was little evidence of scientists actually following a falsificationist methodology. Investigation, or the art of inquiring into the nature of causes and their operation, is a leading characteristic of reason […] Investigation implies three things — Observation, Hypothesis, and Experiment […] The first step in the process, it will be perceived, is to observe… [96].

Now all the established truths which are formulated in the multifarious propositions of science have been won by the use of Scientific Method. This method consists in essentially three distinct steps 1 observation and experiment, 2 hypothesis, 3 verification by fresh observation and experiment. In the past few centuries, some statistical methods have been developed, for reasoning in the face of uncertainty, as an outgrowth of methods for eliminating error. This has been called belief revision, or defeasible reasoning: the models in play during the phases of scientific method can be reviewed, revisited and revised, in the light of further evidence. This arose from the work of Frank P. Ramsey [99] — , of John Maynard Keynes [] — , and earlier, of William Stanley Jevons [][] — in economics.

The question of how science operates and therefore how to distinguish genuine science from pseudoscience has importance well beyond scientific circles or the academic community. However, the high public perception of science means that pseudoscience is widespread. An advertisement in which an actor wears a white coat and product ingredients are given Greek or Latin sounding names is intended to give the impression of scientific endorsement.

Richard Feynman has likened pseudoscience to cargo cults in which many of the external forms are followed, but the underlying basis is missing: that is, fringe or alternative theories often present themselves with a pseudoscientific appearance to gain acceptance. Originally published by Wikipedia ,

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