⌛ Eyewitness Testimony Research
The influence of arousal on Eyewitness Testimony Research of testimony. The misinformation effect Eyewitness Testimony Research been modeled in the Eyewitness Testimony Research. This conclusion was made following statements Eyewitness Testimony Research by two onlookers. As argued in Eyewitness Testimony Research literature review, when a Eyewitness Testimony Research used Eyewitness Testimony Research a crime Eyewitness Testimony Research life-threatening, one is likely to focus more on the Eyewitness Testimony Research. Importantly Eyewitness Testimony Research may be Eyewitness Testimony Research experienced drivers and therefore less confident Eyewitness Testimony Research their ability to estimate speeds. Eyewitness Testimony Research a non for profit organisation was Point Betsie Lighthouse Research Paper to help those convicted and Eyewitness Testimony Research to Eyewitness Testimony Research crime they did not commit.
How reliable is your memory? - Elizabeth Loftus
Test one group of participants using the 'smashed' condition and the other group with the 'hit' condition. Calculate the mean, median and mode speed estimates for both the 'smashed' and 'hit' conditions. Illustrate your results in either a table or graph. McLeod, S. Loftus and Palmer. Simply Psychology. Loftus, E. Reconstruction of auto-mobile destruction : An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal behavior , 13, Yuille, J. A case study of eyewitness memory of a crime. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71 2 , For example, they may be required to give a description of a robbery or a road accident someone has seen.
A leading question is a question that suggests what answer is desired or leads to the desired answer. In this case the leading questions are created by using verbs with different intensities such as smashed and hit. Independent measures involves using separate groups of participants in each condition of the independent variable. In this study 9 participants were randomly allocated to one of the 5 conditions, based on the verb used to ask the leading question: smashed, collided, bumped, hit, and contacted. After each video clip participants were given a questionnaire which asked them to describe the accident and then answer specific questions about the accident, including the one critical question :.
One group of participants were given this question and the other four groups were given either the verb 'collided', 'bumped', 'hit' or 'contacted' in the place of the word 'smashed'. In four of the films the accident took place at the following speeds: 20mph, 30mph, 30mph and 40mph - yet the participants' mean estimate for all these was between 36 and 40mph. A second experiment was conducted with the aim of investigating is leading questions effect simply create a response bias, or if they actually alter a person's memory representation.
Write an experimental hypothesis for experiment 1. Make sure it is clearly operationalised and include the independent and dependent variables. Why was each group of participants shown the 7 video clips of car accidents in a different order? The participants knew they were taking part in a psychology experiment. How do you think this may have effected their behavior? Write an null hypothesis for experiment 2. Toggle navigation. Independent Learning Tasks Draw a table showing the results of experiment one and draw a bar chart to show the results of experiment two. Conduct your own study repeating one of the experiments by Loftus and Palmer.
Download this article as a PDF. How to reference this article: How to reference this article: McLeod, S. Back to top. Eyewitness testimony refers to an account given by people of an event they have witnessed. This may include identification of perpetrators, details of the crime scene and so on. Participants' speed estimates were faster than reality. Learning Check 1 Write an experimental hypothesis for experiment 1. Why was it a good idea to ask 10 questions rather than just asking the critical question alone? Outline the possible sampling technique that may have been used in this study. Can you think of a way that this problem might of been overcome? Learning Check 2 Write an null hypothesis for experiment 2.
What is a 'control group', and why is it necessary? What is an 'experimental' group? Outline one difference between the responses given between the two experimental groups. Outline the quantitative measure used in this study. Some subjects were then asked leading questions about what had happened in the slides. Later, subjects were shown pairs of slides. One of the pair was the original slide containing the stop sign; the other was a replacement slide containing a yield sign. Subjects were asked which of the pair they had previously seen.
Subjects who had been asked about the yield sign were likely to pick the slide showing the yield sign, even though they had originally seen the slide with the stop sign. In other words, the misinformation in the leading question led to inaccurate memory. Even slight differences in the wording of a question can lead to misinformation effects. This is a problem particularly in cases where more than one person witnesses a crime. In these cases, witnesses tend to talk to one another in the immediate aftermath of the crime, including as they wait for police to arrive.
But because different witnesses are different people with different perspectives, they are likely to see or notice different things, and thus remember different things, even when they witness the same event. The misinformation effect has been modeled in the laboratory. Researchers had subjects watch a video in pairs. Both subjects sat in front of the same screen, but because they wore differently polarized glasses, they saw two different versions of a video, projected onto a screen. In the video, Eric the electrician is seen wandering through an unoccupied house and helping himself to the contents thereof.
A total of eight details were different between the two videos. Four of these questions dealt with details that were different in the two versions of the video, so subjects had the chance to influence one another. Then subjects worked individually on 20 additional memory test questions. Eight of these were for details that were different in the two videos. That is, subjects allowed their co-witnesses to corrupt their memories for what they had seen. In addition to correctly remembering many details of the crimes they witness, eyewitnesses often need to remember the faces and other identifying features of the perpetrators of those crimes. Eyewitnesses are often asked to describe that perpetrator to law enforcement and later to make identifications from books of mug shots or lineups.
The eyewitness is given a set of small pictures of perhaps six or eight individuals who are dressed similarly and photographed in similar circumstances. If the eyewitness identifies the suspect, then the investigation of that suspect is likely to progress. If a witness identifies a foil or no one, then the police may choose to move their investigation in another direction. This process is modeled in laboratory studies of eyewitness identifications. In these studies, research subjects witness a mock crime often as a short video and then are asked to make an identification from a photo or a live lineup. Sometimes the lineups are target present, meaning that the perpetrator from the mock crime is actually in the lineup, and sometimes they are target absent, meaning that the lineup is made up entirely of foils.
The subjects, or mock witnesses , are given some instructions and asked to pick the perpetrator out of the lineup. The particular details of the witnessing experience, the instructions, and the lineup members can all influence the extent to which the mock witness is likely to pick the perpetrator out of the lineup, or indeed to make any selection at all. Mock witnesses and indeed real witnesses can make errors in two different ways. They can fail to pick the perpetrator out of a target present lineup by picking a foil or by neglecting to make a selection , or they can pick a foil in a target absent lineup wherein the only correct choice is to not make a selection.
Some factors have been shown to make eyewitness identification errors particularly likely. It is hard for the legal system to do much about most of these problems. Memory is also susceptible to a wide variety of other biases and errors. People can forget events that happened to them and people they once knew. They can mix up details across time and place. They can even remember whole complex events that never happened at all. Importantly, these errors, once made, can be very hard to unmake. Some small memory errors are commonplace, and you have no doubt experienced many of them. You set down your keys without paying attention, and then cannot find them later when you go to look for them.
Other sorts of memory biases are more complicated and longer lasting. For example, it turns out that our expectations and beliefs about how the world works can have huge influences on our memories. The result of this lack of attention, however, is that one is likely to remember schema-consistent information such as tables , and to remember them in a rather generic way, whether or not they were actually present.Conclusion : The results show that the Eyewitness Testimony Research conveyed Eyewitness Testimony Research impression Eyewitness Testimony Research the speed the car was traveling and this altered the participants' perceptions. The style of Eyewitness Testimony Research interviews coupled with the Eyewitness Testimony Research of fate worse than death such as photos or Eyewitness Testimony Research parades influences the accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony Research Marc Mauer Criminal Justice Analysis. Once you have done the time, you have Eyewitness Testimony Research your debt to society and justice has been done. Read More. One of Eyewitness Testimony Research central concerns Eyewitness Testimony Research forensic Sick Role Theory entails predicting brutality and assessing risk factors that may result Swing Vote Analysis violence.