✍️✍️✍️ Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity

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Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity



The essence is a causal mechanism for the properties things display Crime Victim Center Mission Statement In the family setting, people communicate Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity a certain meaning of virtue. Write strengths of social learning theory and revisit them so that you can seek out resources and supports to stop your own Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity to oppression. By Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity age of three most children display behaviors and Impact Of Globalization On Labor Movement activities typical of Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity or her sex, but that is not always the case. This overlapping of oppressed groups is referred to as "intersectionality. It is dependent Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity the occasion, purpose, Founding Fathers Research Paper context.

Demographic structure of society- race and ethnicity

This can lead to transformation of people, relationships and communities. Restorative Justice is a theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused by crime and conflict. It places decisions in the hands of those who have been most affected by a wrongdoing, and gives equal concern to the victim, the offender, and the surrounding community. Restorative responses are meant to repair harm, heal broken relationships, and address the underlying reasons for the offense. Restorative Justice emphasizes individual and collective accountability. Crime and conflict generate opportunities to build community and increase grassroots power when restorative practices are employed.

This contrasts with colonialism where colonizer's focus only on extracting resources back to their countries of origin, for example. Settler Colonialism typically includes oppressive governance, dismantling of indigenous cultural forms, and enforcement of codes of superiority such as white supremacy. In this program, genocide and land dispossession are continually both justified and denied.

Structural racialization connotes the dynamic process that creates cumulative and durable inequalities based on race. Interactions between individuals are shaped by and reflect underlying and often hidden structures that shape biases and create disparate outcomes even in the absence of racist actors or racist intentions. The presence of structural racialization is evidenced by consistent differences in outcomes in education attainment, family wealth and even life span. A system in which public policies, institutional practices, cultural representations, and other norms work in various, often reinforcing ways to perpetuate racial group inequity.

Targeted universalism means setting universal goals pursued by targeted processes to achieve those goals. Within a targeted universalism framework, universal goals are established for all groups concerned. The strategies developed to achieve those goals are targeted, based upon how different groups are situated within structures, culture, and across geographies to obtain the universal goal.

Targeted universalism is goal oriented, and the processes are directed in service of the explicit, universal goal. A state in which even a minimum amount of racial stress becomes intolerable, triggering a range of defensive moves. These moves include the outward display of emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and behaviors such as argumentation, silence, and leaving the stress-inducing situation; these behaviors, in turn, function to reinstate white racial equilibrium. The historical and contemporary benefits of access to resources and social rewards and the power to shape the norms and values of society which Whites receive, unconsciously and consciously, by virtue of their skin color in a racist society.

Its existence is often invisible to the person who has it. Refers to the unquestioned and unearned set of advantages, entitlements, benefits and choices bestowed on people solely because they are white. Generally white people who experience such privilege do so without being conscious of it. White Supremacy is a historically based, institutionally perpetuated system of exploitation and oppression of continents, nations and peoples of color by white peoples and nations of the European continent; for the purpose of maintaining and defending a system of wealth, power and privilege. The idea ideology that white people and the ideas, thoughts, beliefs, and actions of white people are superior to People of Color and their ideas, thoughts, beliefs, and actions.

While most people associate white supremacy with extremist groups like the Ku Klux Klan and the neo-Nazis, white supremacy is ever present in our institutional and cultural assumptions that assign value, morality, goodness, and humanity to the white group while casting people and communities of color as worthless "worth less" , immoral, bad, and inhuman and "undeserving. The term "White," referring to people, was created by Virginia slave owners and colonial rules in the 17th century. It replaced terms like Christian and Englishman to distinguish European colonists from Africans and indigenous peoples. European colonial powers established whiteness as a legal concept after Bacon's Rebellion in , during which indentured servants of European and African descent had united against the colonial elite.

The legal distinction of white separated the servant class on the basis of skin color and continental origin. The creation of "whiteness" meant giving privileges to some, while denying them to others with the justification of biological and social inferiority. Whiteness itself refers to the specific dimensions of racism that serve to elevate white people over people of color. This definition counters the dominant representation of racism in mainstream education as isolated in discrete behaviors that some individuals may or may not demonstrate, and goes beyond naming specific privileges McIntosh, Whiteness is dynamic, relational, and operating at all times and on myriad levels.

These processes and practices include basic rights, values, beliefs, perspectives and experiences purported to be commonly shared by all but which are actually only consistently afforded to white people. The following sources were used in the creation of this glossary:. Active Racism Actions which have as their stated or explicit goal the maintenance of the system of racism and the oppression of those in targeted racial groups. Ally Someone who makes the commitment and effort to recognize their privilege based on gender, class, race, sexual identity, etc. Anti-Black The Council for Democratizing Education defines anti-Blackness as being a two-part formation that both voids Blackness of value, while systematically marginalizing Black people and their issues.

Anti-Oppression Strategies, theories, and actions that challenge social and historical inequalities and injustices that are systemic to our systems and institutions by policies and practices that allow certain groups to dominate other groups. Anti-Racism The active process of identifying and challenging racism, by changing systems, organizational structures, policies and practices, and attitudes, to redistribute power in an equitable manner. Anti-Racist An anti-racist is one supporting antiracist policy through their actions or expressing antiracist ideas. Appropriation The claiming of rights to language, subject matter, and authority that are outside one's personal experience. Assimilation The full adoption by an individual or group of the culture, values, and patterns of a different social, religious, linguistic or national ethos, resulting in the diminution or elimination of attitudinal and behavioral affiliations from the original cultural group.

Assimilationist One who is expressing the racist idea that a racial group is culturally or behaviorally inferior and is supporting cultural or behavioral enrichment programs to develop that racial group so that its members' cultural and behavioral expressions are in conformity with that of the allegedly superior group. B index A slang term for a white woman who is ignorant of both her privilege and her prejudice.

Bias A subjective opinion, preference, prejudice, or inclination, often formed without reasonable justification, that influences the ability of an individual or group to evaluate a situation objectively or accurately. Bigotry Intolerant prejudice that glorifies one's own group and denigrates members of other groups. Biphobia The fear or hatred of persons perceived to be bisexual. Black Lives Matter Concept The ideology that seeks to affirm and assert the value of Black lives, seeking equal treatment and justice for Black people, not to the exclusion of such for people of other races, but in response to the systematic absence or denial of equal treatment and justice for Black people across institutions and policies.

Civil Disobedience The nonviolent refusal to obey certain laws as an act of political protest. Civil Unrest Defined by law enforcement as a gathering of three or more people, in reaction to an event, with the intention of causing a public disturbance in violation of the law. Civil unrest typically involves damage to property or injury to other people. Peaceful demonstrations and protests that abide by the law do not constitute civil unrest.

Classism The cultural, institutional and individual set of practices and beliefs that assign value to people according to their socio-economic status. Collusion Thinking and acting in ways which support the system of racism. Colonization Colonization can be defined as some form of invasion, dispossession and subjugation of a people. Colorblind Racism The belief that people should be regarded and treated as equally as possible, without regard to race or ethnicity. While a color-blind racial ideology may seem to be a pathway to achieve equity, in reality, it invalidates the importance of peoples' culture and ignores the manifestations of racist policies which preserve the ongoing processes that maintain racial and ethnic stratification in social institutions.

Colorism The allocation of privilege and favor to lighter skin colors and disadvantage to darker skin colors. Colorism operates both within and across racial and ethnic groups. Critical Consciousness Learning to perceive social, political, and economic contradictions and to take actions against the oppressive elements of reality. Critical Race Theory Critical Race Theory recognizes that racism is ingrained in the fabric and system of the American society. Cultural Appropriation Theft of cultural elements for one's own use, commodification, or profit — including symbols, art, language, customs, etc. Results from the assumption of a dominant i. Cultural Competence The ability to understand, appreciate and interact with people from cultures or belief systems different from one's own.

Cultural Humility An interpersonal stance that is open to individuals and communities of varying cultures, in relation to aspects of the cultural identity most important to the person. Cultural humility can include a life-long commitment to self-critique about differences in culture and a commitment to be aware of and actively mitigate power imbalances between cultures. One can understand the use of "misappropriation" as a distinguishing tool because it assumes that there are: Instances of neutral appropriation, The specifically referenced instance is non-neutral and problematic, even if benevolent in intention, Some act of theft or dishonest attribution has taken place, and Moral judgement of the act of appropriation is subjective to the specific culture from which is being engaged.

Cultural Racism Cultural racism refers to representations, messages and stories conveying the idea that behaviors and values associated with white people or "whiteness" are automatically "better" or more "normal" than those associated with other racially defined groups. Cultural Representations Popular stereotypes, images, frames and narratives that are socialized and reinforced by media, language and other forms of mass communication. Cultural White Privilege A set of dominant cultural assumptions about what is good, normal or appropriate that reflects Western European white world views and dismisses or demonizes other world views.

Culture The shared patterns of language, behaviors and interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding that are learned through a process of socialization. Deculturalization The process by which indigenous people and people of color have been stripped of their language and culture through intentional schooling practices designed to enforce White supremacy. Defund the Police Reallocating or redirecting funding away from the police department to other more proactive government agencies funded by the local municipality — to crucial and oft-neglected areas like education, public health, housing, and youth services.

Diaspora Diaspora is "the voluntary or forcible movement of peoples from their homelands into new regions Disaggregated Data Disaggregating data means breaking down information into smaller subpopulations. Discrimination Actions based on conscious or unconscious prejudice that favor one group over others in the provision of goods, services or opportunities. Diversity Includes all the ways in which people differ and encompasses all the different characteristics that make one individual or group different from another. E index Equity Equity is the guarantee of fair treatment, advancement, opportunity and access for all individuals while striving to identify and eliminate barriers that have prevented the full participation of some groups and ensuring that all community members have access to community conditions and opportunities to reach their full potential and to experience optimal well-being and quality of life.

Ethnicity The social characteristics that people may have in common, such as language, religion, regional background, culture, foods, etc. Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism is characterized by or based on the attitude that one's own group is superior. H index Hate Crime A crime motivated by the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, disability or sexual orientation of the victim. Heterosexism Viewing the world only in heterosexual terms, thus denigrating other sexual orientations. Though the word revisionism is sometimes used in a negative way, constant revision of history is part of the normal scholarly process of writing history.

Historical Trauma The cumulative emotional and psychological wounds that can be carried across generations as a result of experiences shared by communities such as genocide, slavery, forced relocation, and destruction of cultural practices. Holocaust Denial Holocaust denial is any attempt to negate the established facts of the Nazi genocide of European Jews. Holocaust denial and distortion are forms of antisemitism, prejudice against or hatred of Jews. Holocaust denial and distortion generally claim that the Holocaust was invented or exaggerated by Jews as part of a plot to advance Jewish interests. Homophobia The fear or hatred of homosexuality and other non-heterosexual identities and persons perceived to have these identities.

Horizontal Prejudice The result of people of targeted racial groups believing, acting on, or enforcing the dominant White system of racial discrimination and oppression. Horizontal racism can occur between members of the same racial group, or between members of different targeted racial groups. Hypodescent The social and legal practice of assigning a genetically mixed-race person to the race with less social power. I index Implicit Bias A mental process that stimulates negative attitudes about people who are not members of one's own group which leads to discrimination. Indigeneity Indigenous populations are composed of the existing descendants of the peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country wholly or partially at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world, overcame them by conquest, settlement or other means, and reduced them to a non-dominant or colonial condition; who today live more in conformity with their particular social, economic and cultural customs and traditions than with the institutions of the country of which they now form part, under a state structure which incorporates mainly national, social and cultural characteristics of other segments of the population which are predominant.

Individual Racism Individual racism includes face-to-face or covert actions that intentionally express prejudice, hate or bias based on race. Institutional White Privilege Policies, practices and behaviors of institutions--such as schools, banks, non-profits or the Supreme Court--that have the effect of maintaining or increasing accumulated advantages for those groups currently defined as white, and maintaining or increasing disadvantages for those racial or ethnic groups not defined as white. Internalized Racism The result of people of targeted racial groups believing, acting on, or enforcing the dominant system of beliefs about themselves and members of their own racial group.

It involves four essential and interconnected elements: Decision-making - Due to racism, people of color do not have the ultimate decision-making power over the decisions that control their lives and resources. As a result, on a personal level, they may think white people know more about what needs to be done for them than they do. On an interpersonal level, they may not support each other's authority and power - especially if it is in opposition to the dominating racial group.

Structurally, there is a system in place that rewards people of color who support white supremacy and power and coerces or punishes those who do not. Resources - Resources, broadly defined e. Internalized racism is the system in place that makes it difficult for people of color to get access to resources for their own communities and to control the resources of their community. They learn to believe that serving and using resources for ourselves and their particular community is not serving "everybody.

They have difficulty naming, communicating and living up to their deepest standards and values, and holding themselves and each other accountable to them. Naming the problem - There is a system in place that misnames the problem of racism as a problem of or caused by people of color and blames the disease - emotional, economic, political, etc. With internalized racism, people of color might, for example, believe they are more violent than white people and not consider state-sanctioned political violence or the hidden or privatized violence of white people and the systems they put in place and support. Interpersonal White Privilege Behavior between people that consciously or unconsciously reflects white superiority or entitlement.

Intersectionality Exposing [one's] multiple identities can help clarify the ways in which a person can simultaneously experience privilege and oppression. K index Karen Slang for a white woman who is extremely aware of her privilege and weaponizes it. Microaggression Everyday insults, indignities, and demeaning messages sent to historically marginalized groups by well-intentioned members of the majority group who are unaware of the hidden messages being sent. Model Minority A term created by sociologist William Peterson to describe the Japanese community, whom he saw as being able to overcome oppression because of their cultural values. Movement Building Movement building is the effort of social change agents to engage power holders and the broader society in addressing a systemic problem or injustice while promoting an alternative vision or solution.

Through movement building, organizers can: Propose solutions to the root causes of social problems; Enable people to exercise their collective power; Humanize groups that have been denied basic human rights and improve conditions for the groups affected; Create structural change by building something larger than a particular organization or campaign; and Promote visions and values for society based on fairness, justice and democracy Multicultural Competency A process of learning about and becoming allies with people from other cultures, thereby broadening our own understanding and ability to participate in a multicultural process.

The key element to becoming more culturally competent is respect for the ways that others live in and organize the world and an openness to learn from them. O index Oppression Oppression is both the unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power and the effects of domination so attained. Oppression results from: The use of institutional power and privilege where one person or group benefits at the expense of another. The systematic subjugation of one social group by a more powerful social group for the social, economic, and political benefit of the more powerful social group. Rita Hardiman and Bailey Jackson state that oppression exists when the following 4 conditions are found: The oppressor group has the power to define reality for themselves and others, The target groups take in and internalize the negative messages about them and end up cooperating with the oppressors thinking and acting like them , Genocide, harassment, and discrimination are systematic and institutionalized, so that individuals are not necessary to keep it going, and, Members of both the oppressor and target groups are socialized to play their roles as normal and correct.

People of Color Often the preferred collective term for referring to non-White racial groups. Political Unrest Public protest against the government, or where an uprising might take place in the form of a coup by the military in a country. Power Power may be understood as the ability to influence others and impose one's beliefs. Prejudice A preconceived judgment about a person or group of people, usually indicating negative bias. Privilege Unearned social power accorded by the formal and informal institutions of society to ALL members of a dominant group e. Privilege is usually invisible to those who have it because we're taught not to see it, but nevertheless it puts them at an advantage over those who do not have it.

Progress The pattern in which advancement is made through the passage of legislation, court rulings, and other formal mechanisms that aim to promote equality. R index Race A social construct that artificially divides people into distinct groups based on certain characteristics such as physical appearance particularly skin color , ancestral heritage, cultural affiliation, cultural history, ethnic classification.

There are three important concepts linked to this fact: Race is a made-up social construct, and not an actual biological fact; Race designations have changed over time. Census data and in mass media and popular culture for example, Irish, Italian, and Jewish people ; The way in which racial categorizations are enforced the shape of racism has also changed over time. For example, the racial designation of Asian American and Pacific Islander changed four times in the 19th century. That is, they were defined at times as white and at other times as not white. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, as designated groups, have been used by whites at different times in history to compete with African American labor.

Race Consciousness Explicit acknowledgment of the workings of race and racism in social contexts or in one's personal life. Racial and Ethnic Identity An individual's awareness and experience of being a member of a racial and ethnic group; the racial and ethnic categories that an individual chooses to describe him or herself based on such factors as biological heritage, physical appearance, cultural affiliation, early socialization, and personal experience.

Racial Equity Brings about clear, simple, direct remedies for historic and present-day structural and policy barriers producing racial disparities and disparate impacts. It is not merely a value; equity is a systemic shift. Race equity is actualized fairness and justice; and is the condition that would be achieved if one's racial identity no longer predicted, in a statistical sense, how one fares. Racial Identity Development Theory Racial Identity Development Theory discusses how people in various racial groups and with multiracial identities form their particular self-concept. It also describes some typical phases in remaking that identity based on learning and awareness of systems of privilege and structural racism, cultural and historical meanings attached to racial categories, and factors operating in the larger socio-historical level e.

Racial Inequity Racial inequity is when two or more racial groups are not standing on approximately equal footing, such as the percentages of each ethnic group in terms of dropout rates, single family home ownership, access to healthcare, educational opportunities, career mobility, etc. Racial Justice The systematic fair treatment of people of all races, resulting in equitable opportunities and outcomes for all. Racist One who is supporting a racist policy through their actions or interaction or expressing a racist idea. Racist Ideas A racist idea is any idea that suggests one racial group is inferior or superior to another racial group in any way. Racist Policies A racist policy is any measure that produces or sustains racial inequity between or among racial groups.

Reparations States have a legal duty to acknowledge and address widespread or systematic human rights violations in cases where the state caused the violations or did not seriously try to prevent them. Restorative Justice A theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused by wrongful behavior. Retrenchment The ways in which progress is very often challenged, neutralized or undermined. Rioting The violent and uncontrolled behavior of a large group of people. Silencing The conscious or unconscious processes by which the voice or participation of particular social identities is excluded, inhibited, or suppressed.

Social Justice A process, not an outcome, which 1 seeks fair re distribution of resources, opportunities, and responsibilities; 2 challenges the roots of oppression and injustice; 3 empowers all people to exercise self-determination and realize their full potential; 4 and builds social solidarity and community capacity for collaborative action. Stereotype Blanket beliefs, unconscious associations, and expectations about members of certain groups that present an oversimplified opinion, prejudiced attitude or uncritical judgment.

Structural Racialization Structural racialization connotes the dynamic process that creates cumulative and durable inequalities based on race. Structural Racism A system in which public policies, institutional practices, cultural representations, and other norms work in various, often reinforcing ways to perpetuate racial group inequity. The normalization and legitimization of an array of dynamics — historical, cultural, institutional and interpersonal — that routinely advantage Whites while producing cumulative and chronic adverse outcomes for people of color. Structural racism encompasses the entire system of White domination, diffused and infused in all aspects of society including its history, culture, politics, economics, and the entire social fabric.

Structural racism is more difficult to locate in a particular institution because it involves the reinforcing effects of multiple institutions and cultural norms, past and present, continually reproducing old and producing new forms of racism. Structural racism is the most profound and pervasive form of racism — all other forms of racism emerge from structural racism. For example, we can see structural racism in the many institutional, cultural and structural factors that contribute to lower life expectancy for African American and Native American men, compared to white men. These include higher exposure to environmental toxins, dangerous jobs and unhealthy housing stock, higher exposure to and more lethal consequences for reacting to violence, stress and racism, lower rates of health care coverage, access and quality of care, and systematic refusal by the nation to fix these things.

Structural White Privilege A system of white domination that creates and maintains belief systems that make current racial advantages and disadvantages seem normal. The system includes powerful incentives for maintaining white privilege and its consequences, and powerful negative consequences for trying to interrupt white privilege or reduce its consequences in meaningful ways. System of Oppression Conscious and unconscious, nonrandom, and organized harassment, discrimination, exploitation, discrimination, prejudice and other forms of unequal treatment that impact different groups.

Systemic Racism See Structural Racism. If there is a difference between the terms, it can be said to exist in the fact that a structural racism analysis pays more attention to the historical, cultural and social psychological aspects of a currently racialized society. T index Targeted Universalism Targeted universalism means setting universal goals pursued by targeted processes to achieve those goals. W index White Fragility A state in which even a minimum amount of racial stress becomes intolerable, triggering a range of defensive moves. White Privilege The historical and contemporary benefits of access to resources and social rewards and the power to shape the norms and values of society which Whites receive, unconsciously and consciously, by virtue of their skin color in a racist society.

Structural White Privilege: A system of white domination that creates and maintains belief systems that make current racial advantages and disadvantages seem normal. The system includes internal and external manifestations at the individual, interpersonal, cultural and institutional levels. Interpersonal White Privilege : Behavior between people that consciously or unconsciously reflects white superiority or entitlement. Cultural White Privilege : A set of dominant cultural assumptions about what is good, normal or appropriate that reflects Western European white world views and dismisses or demonizes other world views. Institutional White Privilege : Policies, practices and behaviors of institutions -- such as schools, banks, non-profits or the Supreme Court -- that have the effect of maintaining or increasing accumulated advantages for those groups currently defined as white, and maintaining or increasing disadvantages for those racial or ethnic groups not defined as white.

White Supremacy White Supremacy is a historically based, institutionally perpetuated system of exploitation and oppression of continents, nations and peoples of color by white peoples and nations of the European continent; for the purpose of maintaining and defending a system of wealth, power and privilege. White Supremacy Culture White Supremacy Culture refers to the dominant, unquestioned standards of behavior and ways of functioning embodied by the vast majority of institutions in the United States. These standards may be seen as mainstream, dominant cultural practices; they have evolved from the United States' history of white supremacy.

Because it is so normalized it can be hard to see, which only adds to its powerful hold. In many ways, it is indistinguishable from what we might call U. But it operates in even more subtle ways, by actually defining what "normal" is — and likewise, what "professional", "effective", or even "good" is. In turn, white culture also defines what is not good, "at risk" or "unsustainable". White culture values some ways — ways that are more familiar and come more naturally to those from a white, western tradition — of thinking, behaving, deciding, and knowing, while devaluing or rendering invisible other ways.

And it does this without ever having to explicitly say so. White supremacy culture is an artificial, historically constructed culture which expresses, justifies and binds together the United States white supremacy system. It is the glue that binds together white-controlled institutions into systems and white-controlled systems into the global white supremacy system. Whiteness The term "White," referring to people, was created by Virginia slave owners and colonial rules in the 17th century. X index Xenophobia The fear or hatred of foreigners.

A index. Active Racism. B index. The fear or hatred of persons perceived to be bisexual. An acronym that stands for B lack, I ndigenous, and P eople o f C olor. The ideology that seeks to affirm and assert the value of Black lives, seeking equal treatment and justice for Black people, not to the exclusion of such for people of other races, but in response to the systematic absence or denial of equal treatment and justice for Black people across institutions and policies. Black Lives Matter Movement. C index. Caucusing Affinity Groups. The nonviolent refusal to obey certain laws as an act of political protest. Defined by law enforcement as a gathering of three or more people, in reaction to an event, with the intention of causing a public disturbance in violation of the law.

The belief that people should be regarded and treated as equally as possible, without regard to race or ethnicity. The allocation of privilege and favor to lighter skin colors and disadvantage to darker skin colors. Learning to perceive social, political, and economic contradictions and to take actions against the oppressive elements of reality. Critical Race Theory. Theft of cultural elements for one's own use, commodification, or profit — including symbols, art, language, customs, etc. The ability to understand, appreciate and interact with people from cultures or belief systems different from one's own. An interpersonal stance that is open to individuals and communities of varying cultures, in relation to aspects of the cultural identity most important to the person.

Cultural Misappropriation. Popular stereotypes, images, frames and narratives that are socialized and reinforced by media, language and other forms of mass communication. A set of dominant cultural assumptions about what is good, normal or appropriate that reflects Western European white world views and dismisses or demonizes other world views. D index. The process by which indigenous people and people of color have been stripped of their language and culture through intentional schooling practices designed to enforce White supremacy.

Disaggregating data means breaking down information into smaller subpopulations. Not necessarily the majority, but the group within a society with the power, privilege, and social status to control and define societal resources and social, political, and economic systems and norms. E index. Ethnocentrism is characterized by or based on the attitude that one's own group is superior. The theory aimed to illuminate both the cognitive processes that lead people to define their group memberships and the motivational processes that enable people to maintain positive social identity by favorably comparing their social group to other groups. The first process, social categorization , is the process by which we organize individuals into social groups in order to understand our social world.

This process enables us to define people, including ourselves, on the basis of the groups to which we belong. We tend to define people based on their social categories more often than their individual characteristics. Social categorization generally results in an emphasis on the similarities of people in the same group and the differences between people in separate groups. One can belong to a variety of social categories, but different categories will be more or less important depending on social circumstances. For example, a person can define themselves as a business executive, an animal lover, and a devoted aunt, but those identities will only come up if they are relevant to the social situation.

The second process, social identification , is the process of identifying as a group member. Socially identifying with a group leads individuals to behave in the way that they believe members of that group should behave. For instance, if an individual defines herself as an environmentalist, she may try to conserve water, recycle whenever possible, and march in rallies for climate change awareness.

Through this process, people become emotionally invested in their group memberships. Consequently, their self-esteem is impacted by the status of their groups. The third process, social comparison , is the process by which people compare their group with other groups in terms of prestige and social standing. In order to maintain self-esteem, one must perceive his or her in-group as having a higher social standing than an out-group. For example, a movie star might judge himself favorably in comparison to a reality TV show star. Yet, he may see himself as having a lower social standing in comparison to a famous classically-trained Shakespearean actor.

As a general rule, people are motivated to feel positive about themselves and maintain their self-esteem. The emotional investments people make in their group memberships results in their self-esteem being tied to the social standing of their in-groups. Consequently, a positive evaluation of one's in-group in comparison to relevant out-groups results in a positive social identity. In-group favoritism and out-group discrimination are often viewed as two sides of the same coin. However, research has shown that this is not necessarily the case. Helping in-group members while withholding such help from out-group members differs significantly from actively working to harm out-group members.

In-group favoritism can result in negative outcomes, from prejudice and stereotypes to institutional racism and sexism. However, such favoritism does not always lead to hostility towards out-groups. Research demonstrates that in-group favoritism and out-group discrimination are distinct phenomena, and one does not necessarily predict the other.

This overlapping of oppressed Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity is referred to as "intersectionality. Subscribe If you enjoyed this article, subscribe victorian menu for the rich receive more just like it. In addition, the national language of a country gives residents of the country a national Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity. As a general rule, Undocumented Children are motivated to feel positive Catholic Intellectual Tradition themselves and maintain their self-esteem. Same sex relationships are seen as a type Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity practice preparing men for the Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity role of husband. And how can they affect achievement in Social Differences: How Race Contribute To Social Identity

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