⚡ Order Of Elder Essay

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Order Of Elder Essay



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Short essay about a person from Aiden ,. Sprechen Sie mich an. In he became a second lieutenant in the 8th Infantry Regiment stationed at Frankfurt an der Oder. At twenty-three he was allowed to enter the general war school later called the Prussian Military Academy , where he studied the full three years, graduating in For a year Moltke had charge of a cadet school at Frankfurt an der Oder , then he was for three years employed on the military survey in Silesia and Posen. In he was seconded for service on the general staff at Berlin, to which he was transferred in on promotion to first lieutenant.

He was at this time regarded as a brilliant officer by his superiors, including Prince William , then a lieutenant-general. Moltke was well received at court and in the best society of Berlin. His tastes inclined him to literature, to historical study and to travel. In he had published a short romance, The Two Friends. A year later he wrote An Account of the Internal Circumstances and Social Conditions of Poland , a study based both on reading and on personal observation of Polish life and character. He was fluent in English and a talented writer in German, [3] so in he contracted to translate Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire into German, for which he was to receive 75 marks, his object being to earn the money to buy a horse.

In eighteen months he had finished nine volumes out of twelve, but the publisher failed to produce the book and Moltke never received more than 25 marks. In on his promotion as captain, Moltke obtained six months leave to travel in south-eastern Europe. After a short stay in Constantinople he was requested by the Sultan Mahmud II to help modernize the Ottoman Empire army, and being duly authorized from Berlin he accepted the offer. He remained two years at Constantinople, learned Turkish and surveyed the city of Constantinople, the Bosphorus , and the Dardanelles. He travelled through Wallachia , Bulgaria , and Rumelia , and made many other journeys on both sides of the Strait.

In Moltke was sent as an adviser to the Ottoman general commanding the troops in Anatolia , who was to carry on a campaign against Muhammad Ali of Egypt. During the summer Moltke made extensive reconnaissances and surveys, riding several thousand miles in the course of his journey. He navigated the rapids of the Euphrates and visited and mapped many parts of the Ottoman Empire. In the army moved south to fight the Egyptians, but upon the approach of the enemy, the general refused to listen to Moltke's advice.

Moltke resigned his post of staff officer and took charge of the artillery. With great difficulty, Moltke made his way back to the Black Sea, and thence to Constantinople. His patron, Sultan Mahmud II, was dead, so he returned to Berlin where he arrived, broken in health, in December Once home Moltke published some of the letters he had written as Letters on Conditions and Events in Turkey in the Years to This book was well received at the time. Croix in the Danish West Indies , who married his sister Augusta. It was a happy union, though there were no children. In Moltke had been appointed to the staff of the 4th Army Corps, stationed at Berlin and he published his maps of Constantinople, and, jointly with other German travellers, a new map of Asia Minor and a memoir on the geography of that region.

He became fascinated by railroads and he was one of the first directors of the Hamburg-Berlin railway. In he published the article "What Considerations should determine the Choice of the Course of Railways? In Moltke published The Russo-Turkish Campaign in Europe, — , which was well received in military circles. In the same year, he served in Rome as personal adjutant to Prince Henry of Prussia, which allowed him to create another map of the Eternal City published in In , after a brief return to the General Staff in Berlin, he became Chief of the Staff of the 4th Army Corps, of which the headquarters was then at Magdeburg.

There he remained for seven years, during which he rose to Lieutenant Colonel and Colonel. In Moltke was given the position Chief of the Prussian General Staff , a position he held for the next 30 years though after the establishment of the German Empire , the Prussian General Staff's title was changed to "Great General Staff", as it would have overall direction of the various German armies during war [5]. As soon as he gained the position he went to work making changes to the strategic and tactical methods of the Prussian army: changes in armament and means of communication; changes in the training of staff officers such as instituting staff rides ; [ citation needed ] and changes in the method for the mobilization of the army.

He also instituted a formal study of European politics in connection with the plans for campaigns which might become necessary. In short, he rapidly put into place the features of a modern general staff. In the Austro-Sardinian War in Italy caused the mobilization of the Prussian army, though it did not fight. After the mobilization, the army was reorganized and its strength was nearly doubled.

Moltke watched the Italian campaign closely and wrote a history of it in In an act that was yet another first in military affairs, this history was attributed on the title-page to the historical division of the Prussian staff. In December Moltke was asked for an opinion upon the military aspect of the quarrel with Denmark. He thought the difficulty would be to bring the war to an end, as the Danish army would, if possible, retire to the islands, where, as the Danes had the command of the sea, it could not be attacked. He sketched a plan for turning the flank of the Danish army before the attack upon its position in front of Schleswig. He suggested that by this means its retreat might be cut off.

The Danish army was safe on the islands of Als and Funen. On 30 April Moltke was sent to be chief of the staff for the allied German forces. After a two-month armistice, the German army attacked the Danes in the island of Als 29 June. The Danes evacuated Als and shortly thereafter agreed to the German peace terms. Moltke's appearance on the scene had transformed the war, [ citation needed ] and his influence with the king had acquired a firm basis. Accordingly, when in the quarrel with Austria came to a head, Moltke's plans were adopted and executed. In contrast to Antoine-Henri Jomini , who expounded a system of rules, Moltke was a disciple of Carl von Clausewitz and regarded strategy as a practical art of adapting means to ends.

One of Moltke's trademark strategies, seen in all his plans for war with Russia and France, was what has been called the offensive-defensive strategy, manoeuvring his army to cut the lines of communication of the enemy force and then dig in and defeat the enemy force trying to reestablish its lines of communication in a defensive action. Moltke had pondered the tactics of Napoleon at the Battle of Bautzen , when the emperor brought up Ney 's corps, coming from a great distance, against the flank of the allies, rather than to unite it with his own force before the battle; he had also drawn this conclusion from the combined action of the allies at the Battle of Waterloo.

Additionally, Moltke realized that the increase in firepower reduced the risk a defender ran in splitting his forces, while the increase in the size of armies made outflanking maneuvers more practical. At the same time, Moltke had worked out the conditions of the march and supply of an army. Only one army corps could be moved along one road in the same day; to put two or three corps on the same road meant that the rear corps could not be made use of in a battle at the front. Several corps stationed close together in a small area could not be fed for more than a day or two. Accordingly, he believed that the essence of strategy in his day lay in arrangements for the separation of the corps for marching and their concentration in time for battle.

To make a large army manageable, it must be broken up into separate armies or groups of corps, each group under a commander authorized to regulate its movements and action subject to the instructions of the commander-in-chief as regards the direction and purpose of its operations. Moltke also realized that the expansion in the size of armies since the s made it essentially impossible to exercise detailed control over the entire force as Napoleon or Wellington had done in battle. Subordinates would have to use initiative and independent judgment for the forces to be effective in battle.

Therefore, overall campaign and battle plans should encourage and take advantage of the decentralization that would be necessary in any case. In this new concept, commanders of distant detachments were required to exercise initiative in their decision-making and von Moltke emphasized the benefits of developing officers who could do this within the limits of the senior commander's intent. He accomplished this by means of directives stating his intentions , rather than detailed orders, and he was willing to accept deviations from a directive provided that it was within the general framework of the mission.

Moltke's main thesis was that military strategy had to be understood as a system of options, since it was only possible to plan the beginning of a military operation. As a result, he considered the main task of military leaders to consist in the extensive preparation of all possible outcomes. Moltke planned and led the successful military operations during the Austro-Prussian War of In the strategy for the war the main points are as follows. First Moltke demonstrated a concentration of effort. There were two enemy groups opposing the Prussians, the Austro-Saxon armies, ,; and their allied North and South German armies, some , strong.

The Prussian forces were smaller by some 60,, but Moltke was determined to be superior at the decisive point. The army placed against Austria was , men, leaving just 48, men remaining to defend against Austria's German allies. Those 48, under Falckenstein managed to capture the Hanoverian army in less than two weeks, and then to attack and drive away the South German forces. In dealing with the Austrian and Saxon army, the difficulty was to have the Prussian army ready first. This was not easy, as the king would not mobilize until after the Austrians. Moltke's railway knowledge helped him to save time. Five railway lines led from the various Prussian provinces to a series of points on the southern frontier.

By employing all these railways at once, Moltke had all his army corps moved simultaneously from their peace quarters to the frontier. After marching into Saxony, the Saxon army retreated into Bohemia. Moltke had two Prussian armies about miles km apart. He determined to bring his own two armies together by directing each of them to advance towards Gitschin. He foresaw that the march of the Crown Prince would probably bring him into collision with a portion of the Austrian army; but the Crown Prince had , men, and it was not likely that the Austrians could have a stronger force.

The Austrians, under Ludwig von Benedek , marched faster than Moltke expected, and might have opposed Prince Frederick Charles the Red Prince with four or five corps; but Benedek's attention was centered on Crown Prince Frederick , and his four corps, not under a common command, were beaten in detail. Moltke's two armies were now within a short march of one another and of the enemy. On 3 July they were brought into action, the first army against the Austrian forces and the second against the Austrian right flank. The Austrian army was completely defeated and the campaign and war were won.

He also tried to prevent the Prussian First Army from pushing its attack too hard, hoping in that way to keep the Austrians in their position until their retreat should be cut off by the Crown Prince's army, but this also did not happen. During the negotiations, Otto von Bismarck opposed the king's wish to annex the Kingdom of Saxony and other territory beyond what was actually taken; he feared the active intervention of France. Moltke, however, was confident of beating both French and Austrians if the French should intervene, and he submitted to Bismarck his plans in case a war against both France and Austria proved necessary.

In The Campaign of in Germany was published. This history was produced under Moltke's personal supervision and was regarded as quite accurate at the time. On 24 December Moltke's wife died at Berlin. Her remains were buried in a small chapel erected by Moltke as a mausoleum in the park at Creisau. Moltke again planned and led the Prussian armies in the Franco-Prussian War —71 , which paved the way for the creation of the Prussian-led German Empire in The aspects of such a war had occupied Moltke's attention almost continuously since ; documents published after his death show the many times he considered such a war and the best arrangement of the Prussian or German forces for such a campaign. The arrangements for the transport of the army by railway were revised annually to suit the changes in his plans brought about by political conditions and by the growth of the army, as well as by the improvement of the Prussian system of railways.

The successes of had strengthened Moltke's position, so that when, on 5 July , the order for the mobilization of the Prussian and South German forces was issued, his plans were adopted without dispute. Five days later he was appointed Chief of Staff of the Army for the duration of the war. This gave Moltke the right to issue orders which were equivalent to royal commands.

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