⚡ Social Impacts Of Ww1

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Social Impacts Of Ww1

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World War 1 Explained (1/4): The Aftermath in Europe - DW English

In the United States public opinion favored a return to isolationism ; such popular sentiment was at the root of the US Senate's refusal to ratify the Versailles Treaty and approve US membership in President Wilson's own proposed League of Nations. Kleiner Mann, was nun? Fallada's novel accurately portrayed the Germany of his time: a country immersed in economic and social unrest and polarized at the opposite ends of its political spectrum. Many of the causes of this disorder had their roots in World War I and its aftermath. The path which Germany took would lead to a still more destructive war in the years to come.

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Glossary : Full Glossary. World War I: Aftermath. NBER periodicals and newsletters are not copyrighted and may be reproduced freely with appropriate attribution. More in this issue. The Digest: No. Share Twitter LinkedIn Email. Intergenerational Impacts of the Perry Preschool Project. Economy in World War I. Also in this issue:. Changing Demographics of U. Science-Engineering PhDs. Antidumping in Historical Perspective. Investing in Commodity Futures? Measuring the Growth from Better and Better Goods. As the physicists convinced military leaders of the potential of nuclear weapons, funding for actual development was ratcheted up rapidly. A number of large laboratories were created across the United States for work on different aspects of the bomb, while many existing facilities were reoriented to bomb-related work; some were university-managed while others were government-run, but all were ultimately funded and directed by the military.

After Japan's surrender immediately following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , many scientists returned to academia or industry, but the Manhattan Project infrastructure was too large—and too effective—to be dismantled wholesale; it became the model for future military-scientific work, in the U. Other wartime physics research, particularly in rocketry and radar technology, was less significant in popular culture but much more significant for the outcome of the war. German rocketry was driven by the pursuit of Wunderwaffen , resulting in the V-2 ballistic missile ; the technology as well as the personal expertise of the German rocketry community was absorbed by the U. Rocket science was only beginning to make impact by the final years of the war.

German rockets created fear and destruction in London, but had only modest military significance, while air-to-ground rockets enhanced the power of American air strikes; jet aircraft also went into service by the end of the war. British physicists pioneered long-wave radar , developing an effective system for detecting incoming German air forces. Work on potentially more precise short-wave radar was turned over to the U. Further refinement of microwave technology led to proximity fuzes, which greatly enhanced the ability of the U.

Navy to defend against Japanese bombers. Microwave production, detection and manipulation also formed the technical foundation to complement the institutional foundation of the Manhattan Project in much post-war defense research. In the years immediately following World War II, the military was by far the most significant patron of university science research in the U. Military money following up the wartime radar research led to explosive growth in both electronics research and electronics manufacturing. Meanwhile, the perceived communist menace of the Soviet Union caused tensions—and military budgets—to escalate rapidly. Military patronage benefited a large number of fields, and in fact helped create a number of the modern scientific disciplines.

At Stanford and MIT , for example, electronics, aerospace engineering , nuclear physics , and materials science —all physics, broadly speaking—each developed in different directions, becoming increasingly independent of parent disciplines as they grew and pursued defense-related research agendas. What began as interdepartmental laboratories became the centers for graduate teaching and research innovation thanks to the broad scope of defense funding. The need to keep up with corporate technology research which was receiving the lion's share of defense contracts also prompted many science labs to establish close relationships with industry.

The complex histories of computer science and computer engineering were shaped, in the first decades of digital computing, almost entirely by military funding. Most of the basic component technologies for digital computing were developed through the course of the long-running Whirlwind - SAGE program to develop an automated radar shield. Virtually unlimited funds enabled two decades of research that only began producing useful technologies by the end of the 50s; even the final version of the SAGE command and control system had only marginal military utility. More so than with previously-established disciplines receiving military funding, the culture of computer science was permeated with a Cold War military perspective.

Indirectly, the ideas of computer science also had a profound effect on psychology , cognitive science and neuroscience through the mind-computer analogy. The history of earth science and the history of astrophysics were also closely tied to military purposes and funding throughout the Cold War. American geodesy , oceanography , and seismology grew from small sub-disciplines in into full-fledged independent disciplines as for several decades, virtually all funding in these fields came from the Department of Defense.

A central goal that tied these disciplines together even while providing the means for intellectual independence was the figure of the Earth , the model of the earth's geography and gravitation that was essential for accurate ballistic missiles. In the s, geodesy was the superficial goal of the satellite program CORONA , while military reconnaissance was in fact a driving force. Even for geodetic data, new secrecy guidelines worked to restrict collaboration in a field that had formerly been fundamentally international; the Figure of the Earth had geopolitical significance beyond questions of pure geoscience.

Still, geodesists were able to retain enough autonomy and subvert secrecy limitations enough to make use of the findings of their military research to overturn some of the fundamental theories of geodesy. Quantum electronics permitted both revolutionary new methods of analyzing the universe and—using the same equipment and technology—the monitoring of Soviet electronic signals. Military interest in and funding of seismology, meteorology and oceanography was in some ways a result of the defense-related payoffs of physics and geodesy.

The immediate goal of funding in these fields was to detect clandestine nuclear testing and track fallout radiation , a necessary precondition for treaties to limit the nuclear weapon technology earlier military research had created. In particular, the feasibility of monitoring underground nuclear explosions was crucial to the possibility of a comprehensive rather than Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The biological sciences were also affected by military funding, but, with the exception of nuclear physics-related medical and genetic research, largely indirectly.

The most significant funding sources for basic research before the rise of the military-industrial-academic complex were philanthropic organizations such as the Rockefeller Foundation. After World War II and to some extent before , the influx of new industrial and military funding opportunities for the physical sciences prompted philanthropies to divest from physics research—most early work in high-energy physics and biophysics had been the product of foundation grants—and refocus on biological and medical research.

The social sciences also found limited military support from the s to the s, but much defense-minded social science research could be—and was—pursued without extensive military funding. In the s, social scientists tried to emulate the interdisciplinary organizational success of the physical sciences' Manhattan Project with the synthetic behavioral science movement. By the s, economists and political scientists offered up modernization theory for the cause of Cold War nation-building ; modernization theory found a home in the military in the form of Project Camelot , a study of the process of revolution, as well as in the Kennedy administration 's approach to the Vietnam War.

Project Camelot was ultimately canceled because of the concerns it raised about scientific objectivity in the context of such a politicized research agenda; though natural sciences were not yet susceptible to implications of the corrupting influence of military and political factors, the social sciences were. Historian Paul Forman , in his seminal article, proposed that not only had military funding of science greatly expanded the scope and significance of American physics, it also initiated "a qualitative change in its purposes and character.

In turn, critics of the distortionist thesis, beginning with Daniel Kevles , deny that the military "seduced American physicists from, so to speak, a 'true basic physics'.

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