✪✪✪ Differences Between Tan And Her Mother, By Amy Tan

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Differences Between Tan And Her Mother, By Amy Tan

Thank you so much. The Joy Luck Club Cultural Influence In Arizona In The 21st Century an interesting book and certainly better than I first Differences Between Tan And Her Mother. The daughters and their Differences Between Tan And Her Mother are within the same society, so we also saw their interactions with Doege-Potter Syndrome Case Study other By Amy Tan that Differences Between Tan And Her Mother interesting by itself. One Differences Between Tan And Her Mother examined a patient with bilateral degeneration of the amygdala. Differences Between Tan And Her Mother in By Amy Tan. The Journal of Neuroscience. Tan's novel gives a glimpse Differences Between Tan And Her Mother some cultural expectations, By Amy Tan, difficulties and joys that Asian Americans experience.

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Focus on the learner. A learner-centered classroom is one in which learners are actively involved in their own learning processes. There are two dimensions to this learner involvement. The second is in maximizing the class time in which the learners, rather than the teacher, do the work. Reflection 1. What do you think some of the objections to the two dimensions of learner involvement outlined above might be? Brainstorm possible solutions to these objections. A ccording to this view, the teacher is the boss, and it is the professional responsibility o f the teacher to make these decisions. A countervailing view is that ultimately it is the learner who has to do the learning. Then gradually, through a process o f learner training, begin developing in the learners the skills they need in order to begin taking control o f their own learning processes.

See Christison, Chapter 13, this volume. In most classrooms it is somewhere in between, with teacher and students negotiating things such as when to submit assignments, whether to d o a task in small groups or pairs, whether to do a reading task before a listening task or vice-versa, and so on. However, a teacher w ho is com m itted to this principle will look for opportunities to involve learners in becom in g m ore reflective and in making more decisions about their own learning.

Each step entails greater and greater involvement o f learners in their own learning processes. Make instructional goals clear to learners. Help learners to create their own goals. Encourage learners to use their second language outside of the classroom. Help learners to become more aware of learning processes and strategies. Show learners how to identify their own preferred styles and strategies. Give learners opportunities to make choices between different options in the classroom. Teach learners how to create their own learning tasks. Provide learners with opportunities to master some aspect of their second language and then teach it to others. Create contexts in which learners investigate language and become their own researchers of language.

For examples of how to make these ideas work in the classroom, see Nunan, Develop your own personal methodology. The major difference lies, not in the tasks themselves, but in the ordering and prioritizing o f the tasks. In other words, in terms o f actual classroom practices the same techniques might be used, but their ordering and emphasis would be different. They are derived from their professional training and experience as well as their own experiences as learners. W hile one teacher might correct errors overtly, others might do it through m odeling the correct utterance. These two styles are exemplified in the following examples. Teacher A: No. Remember Luis, the past tense of go is went. Teacher B: Oh, you went home at three, did you Luis? Another teacher may prefer to introduce the grammar point in the form o f a contextualized dialogue and only draw the attention o f the student to the grammatical form after they have used it communicatively or pseudocommunicatively.

If you are teaching large classes, it may not be feasible to do much pair or group work, no matter how highly you think o f them. This is not to say that all practices are equally valid for all learners. Experiment with different practices. Try out new ideas. R ecord your lessons, observe your teaching, if possible have a peer observe your teaching, and above all reflect on what happens in your classroom.

Principle 2 pages mentions self-observation, peer observation, and reflective journals. Brainstorm other ways of obtaining information and feedback on your teaching. Design a plan for getting feedback on your teaching. Build instructional sequences based on a pretask, task, and follow-up cycle. Successful instructional sequences share certain things in com m on, regardless o f the m ethodological principles or approaches that drive them. Following the pretasks com es the task itself. This will usually consist o f several steps or subtasks. In the communicative classroom, the teacher will seek to maximize the time that the students are processing the language or interacting with each other although, o f course, this will depend on the rationale for the instructional sequence.

Following the task proper, there should be some sort o f follow-up. This also has a number o f functions: to elicit feedback from the students about their experience, to provide feedback to the students on how they had done, to correct errors that the teacher might have noticed in the course o f the instructional sequence, and to get students to reflect on the tasks and engage in self-evaluation. Action I Select a language-learning task from a textbook or other source and design a pretask and follow-up to it. Classroom techniques and tasks In this section, we look at some o f the techniques and ideas that have been introduced in the preceding sections.

I have chosen to organize this section in terms o f pretask, task, and follow-up. There is almost no limit to the number o f things that can be done at the pretask stage. Here is an example o f an information gap task. This task is personalized in that the students create their own information gap based on content from their own lives. I Example Make a note of the things you have to do this week. Leave two spaces free. Arrange a time to see a movie. You might have to change your schedule. What level of proficiency do you think the task above is designed for? What language do you imagine that students will need to use? What language functions are the students practicing? Design your own information gap task. Specify the vocabulary, grammar, and structures that you think the students will need in order to complete the task.

Follow-up As already indicated, the follow-up phase also provides lots o f scope. The teacher can give feedback to the students, debrief them on some aspect o f the preceding task, or encourage them to reflect on what they learned and how well they are doing. I Example 1. Write sentences using three of these new words. Review the language functions you practiced in this lesson. Circle your answers. Can you Yes give and receive messages? Yes 3. A little A little Not yet Not yet What would you say? You s a y 4. Review the language we practiced today. In groups, brainstorm ways to use this language out of class. Imagine you are visiting an Englishspeaking country. Where and when might you need this language?

Methodology in the classroom Reflection What is going on in Extract 1 page ? Is the extract taken from a pretask, task, or follow-up? What is the purpose of the instructional sequence? S represents a particular student. Ss stands for students. S1: Tourist, visitor, traveler, student. S2: Student. S1: Yeah. S2: Must be that one, yeah. T: Why do you think—why is student the odd one out? S2: Oh, tourist, visitor, traveler They are moving.

S3: Yeah. S1: They are going. S2: They have something in common, no? T: Yeah, yeah. How would you describe it? S3: OK, second. Investigate, determine, explore, inquire. I think, determine S1: Determine. S3: Yeah, because investigate, inquire, explore is S1: Synonymous, synonymous. S1: Third. Elderly, intelligent, stupidly, and talkative. Intelligent and stupidly, you know. I think they have, er, some relations between because there is the opposite meanings. S3: How about, er, elderly and talkative? S2: Talkative—what means talkative? S1: Yeah, too much. S2: Talkative.

S1: How about the elderly? S3: Adjective. S1: Had a more experience and they get the more S3: Intelligent, stupidly—maybe that the part of the human being S1: Wait. Wait a minute. OK, this is, this is different ad S2: OK, all right. T: So, which one did you decide? T: Personality. S2: Personality, yeah. S1: Er, utilize, uncover, reveal, disclose. Yeah, this is utilize. Uncover, reveal, disclose—all of them the same meaning. Uncover, reveal, disclose. S2: Uncover? S1: You know, cover and uncover gestures.

S2: Oh. S3: Good. T: But how would you define What is S3: You mean the uncover and reveal? T: Reveal and disclose. What is the S2: To find something and to S1: Uncover, revealed. The other one means the opposite of doing something. Com m entary The sequence is taken from a pretask designed to present and review som e key vocabulary that the students would encounter in the task proper—a selective listening task. Put a circle around the odd word out and say why it is the odd word. The teacher also does a g ood jo b o f keeping the students on track and pushing them to describe what the words have in com m on. In the extract, the two participants have heard two different interviewing committees discussing the relative merits o f three applicants for a jo b.

Their task is to share their information and decide which o f the three would be the best person for the jo b. Extract 2 A : Are you talking about Alan or Geoffrey? Just the first name. B: Well, I understood I was talking about Geoffrey, yeah? Is that correct? A: Not at all. B: Not at all. So I have confused the man, have I? What notes do you have on Richards? See if we can get this sorted out first.

A: Were talking about Geoffrey, right? A : How about Alan? I mean I A: Yes, but I mean, er, I agree, they are all, erm, foremen. Supervisor, by the way, is the same to me. Reflection In Extract 2, the learners seem confused about the identities of the individuals. In what ways does this help their language development? In what ways does it hurt it? There is considerable confusion over the identity o f the individuals being interviewed. However, this was exactly the purpose o f the task. Both students had different, and slightly conflicting, information on the three participants, and this led to considerable negotiation between the two students. Reflection Extract 3 is a feedback session following a task. What do you think the task was? What do you notice about the way the teacher conducts the session?

What is the purpose of the follow-up? At school? Ss: Yes, yes. T: At a party? S: Yes. S: No. T: Never been to a party? Oh, you poor thing, laughter, At the movies? Ss: No, no. T: No? Why not? Ss: Inaudible comments and laughter. Ss: No. T: Sports event? Ss: Yes. T: Why? S: Not at sports event. S: What sports event? S: Baseball game. S: Stadium. T: You mean watching? S: Watching, yeah. There is some confused discussion among the students. What about at a concert? Laughter, T: No as well. T: New people. What other, what other places can you meet? S: Part-time job. T: Part-time job. Excited murmuring T: Yeah! Good one. Any more? S: Church. T: Church. Scattered Laughter S; Travel, travel, traveling. T: Traveling. S: Some people meet new people at beach or, er, swimming pool.

T: OK. Laughter and teasing of student making this remark. T: Is this where you meet new people? Laughter S: Huh? S: Yeah. Laughter T: Any others? S: Er T: Organizations? What kind? S: Oh, like, er, environmental group or Pair work. In your country, where can you meet new people? A comprehensive text on language teaching m ethodology would be hundreds o f pages in length. I hope, however, that it provides a platform you can build on when you read the rest o f the chapters in this volume. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Third Edition. This ed ited volum e is one of the standard w orks in the field.

It covers all aspects of language tea chin g m ethodology, and m any cha pters w ould be excellent follow -up reading to the cha pters in this volum e. Nunan, D. Second Language Teaching and Learning. Richards J. Renandya eds. Methodology in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. An ed ited collectio n of reprints on all a sp e cts of m ethodology, this volum e provides an overview of current ap pro ache s, issues, and pra ctice s in tea chin g English to speakers of other languages.

References Brown, H. In Richards, J. Krashen, S. Oxford: Pergamon. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Terrell The Natural Approach. M oulton, W. N unan, D. The Learner-Centered Curriculum. Richards, J. Platt, and H. W eber The Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. London: Longman. Stevick, E. Memory, Meaning and Method Second Edition. Swaffar, J. Arens, and M. M organ Teacher Classroom Practices: Redefining method as task hierarchy. Modern LanguageJournal, What is listening? Every day we listen to many different things in many different ways.

W hether it is conversation with a colleague, the T V news, or a new music C D , we listen. In this chapter, we will explore how listening works and ways to help learners becom e m ore effective listeners. Listening is an active, purposeful process o f making sense o f what we hear. Language skills are often categorized as receptive or productive. Speaking and writing are the productive skills. That is, it requires a person to receive and understand incoming information input. For this reason, people sometimes think o f it as a passive skill.

Nothing could be farther from the truth. Listening is very active. As people listen, they process not only what they hear but also connect it to other information they already know. Listening is meaning based. W hen we listen, we are normally doing so for a purpose. Listening is often com pared to reading, the other receptive skill. W hile the two do share som e similarities, two major differences should be noted from the start.

Firstly, listening usually happens in real time. That is, people listen and have to com prehend what they hear immediately. There is no time to go back and review, look up unknown words, etc. To understand how listening works and how to teach it more effectively, start by thinking about your own listening. What have you listened to today? Write at least eight things. Try to think of different types of things you have listened to. Background to the teaching of listening Historically, learning a foreign language meant learning to read and write. Listening was virtually ignored. I draw near to the door. I draw nearer to the door. I walk. I draw near. I draw nearer. I get to the door. I get to. I stop at the door. I stop.

Still later, the direct method, often associated with Charles Berlitz, prom oted the teaching o f listening com prehension and the idea that new teaching points should be introduced orally. In the years follow ing W orld War II, the audiolingual m ethod came to dominate foreign language teaching. As in the direct method, these were presented orally, before the learner saw the written form. Listening was seen as a major source o f comprehensible input. Language learning textbooks began including listening activities that were not simply presentation o f language to be produced.

They were listening activities for input, the beginning o f the kinds o f listening tasks com m on in books today. Think of your experience studying languages. Which of the ideas do you believe in? Principles for teaching listening 1. Expose students to different ways of processing information: bottom-up vs. To understand h ow people make sense o f the stream o f sound we all hear, it is helpful to think about how we process the input. The distinction is based on the way learners attempt to understand what they read or hear.

Top-down processing is the opposite. Imagine a brick wall. If you are standing at the bottom studying the wall brick by brick, you can easily see the details. It is difficult, however, to get an overall view o f the wall. However, because o f distance, you will miss some details. And, o f course, the view is very different. It is not surprising, therefore, that these learners try to process English from the bottom up.

It can be difficult to experience what beginning-level learners go through. However, a reading task can be used to understand the nature o f bottom-up processing. Try reading the follow ing from right to left. However, word. Brown gives this example from a personal experience o f buying postcards at an Austrian museum: I speak no German, but walked up to the counter after having calculated that the postcards would cost sixteen schillings.

I gave the clerk a twenty-schilling note, she opened the till, looked in it, and said something in German. As a reflex, I dug in my pocket and produced a one-schilling coin and gave it to her. I just needed my life experience. Schema are abstract notions we possess based on experiences. We need to help learners integrate the two. The following is m y own real life example o f how top-down and bottom-up processing can integrate: Visiting R om e, I was in the courtyard in front o f St. I looked at her with a puzzled expression. W hat happened in this short interaction was a combination o f bottom-up and top-down processing.

We were standing in front o f buildings. She was asking a question about a place. M y top-down knowledge o f what people might talk about—especially to strangers-said that she must be asking for directions. In the classroom, prelistening activities are a g ood way to make sure it happens. Before listening, learners can, for example, brainstorm vocabulary related to a topic or invent a short dialogue relevant to functions such as giving directions or shopping. In the process, they base their information on their knowledge o f life top-down information as they generate vocabulary and sentences bottomup data. The result is a more integrated attempt at processing. The learners are activating their previous knowledge.

This use o f the combination o f top-down and bottom-up data is also called interactive processing Peterson, This is unbalanced. We need prelistening activities to do two things: provide a context for interpretation and activate the background knowledge which will help interpretation. Give them enough to do that, and then let them listen. If they lock into an interpretation too early, they may miss information that contradicts it.

Although the wind was the key to what saved the estate, many learners relied on their top-dow n schema Firefighters put out fires. They incorrectly identified the firefighters as the answer. Reflection Go back to the list you wrote on page Choose one example of something you listened to. What types of background information both top-down and bottom-up data helped you make sense of the information? The amygdala is responsible for facial recognition and allows others to respond appropriately to different emotional expressions.

It does not, however, process the direction of the gaze of the person being perceived. The amygdala is also thought to be a determinant of the level of a person's emotional intelligence. It is particularly hypothesized that larger amygdalae allow for greater emotional intelligence, enabling greater societal integration and cooperation with others.

The amygdala processes reactions to violations concerning personal space. These reactions are absent in persons in whom the amygdala is damaged bilaterally. Animal studies have shown that stimulating the amygdala appears to increase both sexual and aggressive behavior. Likewise, studies using brain lesions have shown that harm to the amygdala may produce the opposite effect. Thus, it appears that this part of the brain may play a role in the display and modulation of aggression. There are cases of human patients with focal bilateral amygdala lesions due to the rare genetic condition Urbach-Wiethe disease.

This finding reinforces the conclusion that the amygdala "plays a pivotal role in triggering a state of fear". The amygdala appears to play a role in binge drinking , being damaged by repeated episodes of intoxication and withdrawal. The protein is involved in controlling the function of other proteins and plays a role in development of the ability to consume a large amount of ethanol. There may also be a link between the amygdala and anxiety. In an experiment, degu pups were removed from their mother but allowed to hear her call.

In response, the males produced increased serotonin receptors in the amygdala but females lost them. This led to the males being less affected by the stressful situation. The clusters of the amygdala are activated when an individual expresses feelings of fear or aggression. This occurs because the amygdala is the primary structure of the brain responsible for fight or flight response. Anxiety and panic attacks can occur when the amygdala senses environmental stressors that stimulate fight or flight response.

The amygdala is directly associated with conditioned fear. Conditioned fear is the framework used to explain the behavior produced when an originally neutral stimulus is consistently paired with a stimulus that evokes fear. The amygdala represents a core fear system in the human body, which is involved in the expression of conditioned fear. Fear is measured by changes in autonomic activity including increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, as well as in simple reflexes such as flinching or blinking. The central nucleus of the amygdala has direct correlations to the hypothalamus and brainstem — areas directly related to fear and anxiety.

This connection is evident from studies of animals that have undergone amygdalae removal. Such studies suggest that animals lacking an amygdala have less fear expression and indulge in non-species-like behavior. Many projection areas of the amygdala are critically involved in specific signs that are used to measure fear and anxiety. Mammals have very similar ways of processing and responding to danger. Scientists have observed similar areas in the brain — specifically in the amygdala — lighting up or becoming more active when a mammal is threatened or beginning to experience anxiety.

Similar parts of the brain are activated when rodents and when humans observe a dangerous situation, the amygdala playing a crucial role in this assessment. By observing the amygdalae's functions, it can determined why one rodent may be much more anxious than another. There is a direct relationship between the activation of the amygdala and the level of anxiety the subject feels. Feelings of anxiety start with a catalyst — an environmental stimulus that provokes stress. This can include various smells, sights, and internal sensations that result in anxiety. The amygdala reacts to this stimuli by preparing to either stand and fight or to turn and run.

This response is triggered by the release of adrenaline into the bloodstream. Consequently, blood sugar rises, becoming immediately available to the muscles for quick energy. Shaking may occur in an attempt to return blood to the rest of the body. Apart from initiation of stress, long-term changes in amygdala neurons may also increase anxiety after long-term or traumatic stress, led by the action of stress-related hormones within the amygdala. There seems to be a connection with the amygdalae and how the brain processes posttraumatic stress disorder. Multiple studies have found that the amygdalae may be responsible for the emotional reactions of PTSD patients.

One study in particular found that when PTSD patients are shown pictures of faces with fearful expressions, their amygdalae tended to have a higher activation than someone without PTSD. Amygdala dysfunction during face emotion processing is well-documented in bipolar disorder. Amygdala size has been correlated with cognitive styles with regard to political thinking. A study found that "greater liberalism was associated with increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas greater conservatism was associated with increased volume of the right amygdala.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Each of two small structures deep within the temporal lobe of complex vertebrates. For other uses, see Amygdala disambiguation. See also: Neuroscience of sex differences. Main article: Emotion and memory. Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 9 November Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 15 March Anatomy and Embryology. PMID S2CID Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. PMC Human Brain Mapping, Archived from the original on 9 March Trends in Neurosciences. Cerebral Cortex. The Human Amygdala. Guilford Press. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. Differential contribution of right and left amygdala to affective information processing. IOS Press.

Brain Research. Bibcode : PLoSO Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. January Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. The Neuroscientist. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. Physiology of behavior. ISBN Behavioral Neuroscience. Learning and memory, part 3: fear conditioning". Physiology of Behavior. November Nature Neuroscience. The Journal of Neuroscience. Bibcode : Natur. The European Journal of Neuroscience. Due to the lack of other Asian American narratives, this book remains important. Twenty-five years after it was written, teenagers have the opportunity to be exposed to Asian American culture, history, and spirituality through reading The Joy Luck Club in their classes.

Tan's novel gives a glimpse of some cultural expectations, dynamics, difficulties and joys that Asian Americans experience. The novel spans the time from the late s to the mid s. It shares a fascinating tale of four Chinese women who endured loss, tragedy, fear, and deceit to build new lives for themselves and for their daughters who were born in the United States. The narrative goes back in time to share the tragic stories of the women and how they have overcome their pain for a better future. Tan explores the struggles, difficulties, and pains that women encounter. Each family struggles with the difficulties of communicating across cultural and generational gaps. The mothers and daughters are unable to communicate and understand each other's problems; the daughters are growing up in a Western culture, while their parents grew up in a traditional Chinese culture.

This generational gap highlights the differences between the mothers and daughters and creates many issues, such as the mothers not allowing their daughters to date white men. Although a portion of the novel focuses on the problems sprouting from this generational gap, the common experience of sexism in both the Chinese culture and the culture of the United States brings the mothers and daughters together and creates a bond between them.

Both cultures are patriarchal, as men are always in a dominant position economically, sexually, and socially, particularly in Chinese culture. Through the stories told by these women they recount the experiences they had dealt with as victims of sexism in China and the United States. Many Asian American women continue to be punished by the expectations and rules placed on them by our society. Examples of such experiences appear throughout the novel. For instance, An-mei's mother was raped. To preserve her honor she had to marry the rapist; however a Chinese man may marry any number of concubines without suffering dishonor. The mothers tell stories from long ago in China; the daughters tell their stories from their present life.

Differences Between Tan And Her Mother the language sound The Key To Success? Grit By Angela Duckworth Analysis So yes they both feel what someone else is feeling. S3: He should be out By Amy Tan his mind. Differences Between Tan And Her Mother, are you willing to By Amy Tan a total pariah in behalf of your Differences Between Tan And Her Mother Write brief instructions on By Amy Tan cards.

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