① Unit 9 Computer Networks P1

Thursday, November 11, 2021 6:17:31 AM

Unit 9 Computer Networks P1



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Define the term indefinite postponement. How does it differ from deadlock? What is page fault? Consider the following page reference string; 3, 3, 5, 4, 7, 1, 5, 5, 1, 4, 3, 7, 6, 3, 4, 1. How many page faults would occur for each of the following page replacement algorithms assuming 4 page frames? Clock replacement. Define the first-fit, best-fit and worst-fit strategies of memory placement. Given memory partitions of 10 k, 4 k, 20 k, 18 k, 7 k, 9 k, 12 k, and 15 k in order. How would each of first- fit, best fit and worst fit algorithms place processes of 12 k, 10 k and 9 k in order? Which algorithms make the best use of memory? Discuss the concept of Belady's anomaly with suitable example.

Given references to the following pages by a program, 0, 9, 0, 1, 8, 1, 8, 7, 8, 7, 1, 2, 8, 2, 7, 8, 2, 3, 8, 3. How many page faults will occur if the program has three page frames for each of the following algorithms? Second Chance. How many page faults occur for each of the following page replacement algorithm for the reference string 0 1 7 2 3 2 7 1 0 3 with four page frames and eight pages? Suppose all frames are initially empty. Optimal replacement. FIFO replacement. LRU replacement. Consider the following page reference string 1, 3, 5,4, 7, 1, 5, 6, 1, 2, 3, 7, 6, 3, 4, 1, 3, 8.

How many page faults would occur for each of the following page replacement algorithms assuming 3 frames? Write short notes on :. Least recently used page replacement algorithm. Associative memory. Consider the following page reference string : 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 1, 5, 6, 2, 3, 7, 6, 3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 6. Assuming three, five or seven frames? Remember all frames are initially empty, so your first unique pages will all cost one fault each. What is thrashing? Explain the cause and solution for thrashing.

What must user programs be prohibited from writing to the memory locations containing the interrupt vector? Given references to the following pages by a program, 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 1, 5, 6, 2, 1, 2, 3, 7, 6, 3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 6. How many page faults will occur if the program has here page frames available to it and uses FIFO replacement? When do page fault occur? Describe the actions taken by an OS when a page fault occurs.

Differentiate between multi programming and Monoprogramming. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation with example. Discuss in detail the use of translation look aside buffer TLB in the process of paging. Support your answer with illustration. What are the segmentation and paging? Why they are combined into one scheme? How many page faults will occur if the program has three page frames available to it and uses LRU replacement? Explain with merits and demerits. A computer with 32 bit address uses a two level page table. Virtual addresses are split into a 9 bit top level page table field, bit second level page table field and offset.

How large the pages? How much maximum space required when page tables loaded into memory if each entry required when page tables loaded into memory if each entry required when page tables loaded into memory if each entry required 4 bytes. What are Segmentation and Paging? Why they are sometimes combine into one scheme? Two separate systems one implemented in bitmap and another in linked list to manage the fragmentation of MB memory.

For bitmap, allocation units are of bytes. For linked list, each holes or segments are of 32 KB, and each node in the list needs a 32 bits. How many bytes of storage is required for each method? Which one is better in terms of memory spare required? What do you mean by memory fragmentation? Distinguish between the internal and external fragmentation. What is Fragmentation? Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. Distinguish between the paging and segmentation.

Why many systems use the combination of both? Under what circumstances do page fault occur? Describe the action taken by the operating system when a page fault occurs. What is the difference between physical address and virtual address? Explain the conversion of virtual address into physical address by MMU. What is swapping? Differentiate contiguous memory allocation with non contiguous memory allocation. Why program relocation and protection is important? Explain the technique of achieving program relocation and protection. Compare the bitmap and linked list implementation of disk free-space management.

How much space required in memory to store bitmap for 20 GB hard disk with 2KB block size. How many bits would be needed to store the free-space list under the following conditions if a bit map were used to implement? Also find how much space is required if it need to be stored in memory. Explain the mapping of virtual address to real address under segmentation. What are the main motivations and issues in primary memory management? Explain how does file allocation table FAT manage the files. Mention the merits and demerits of FAT system.

A GB disk has 1-KB block size, calculate the size of the file allocation table if each entry of the table has to be 3 bytes. What do you mean by file system? What are the major difference between file system interface and file system implementation? Disk scheduling algorithms. Error handling and formatting. File operations. Describe the technique of long file names? In your opinion, which one is most efficient?

Give reason to justify your answer. Define file and directories. Explain about protection mechanism. Explain about hierarchial directory systems with diagrammatic examples. Explain how file allocation table FAT manage the files. Mention the merits and demerits of using FAT. Explain how file allocation table FAT manages files. What do you mean by disk management? What are the major differences between error handling and formatting? Suppose the head of a moving head disk with tracks, numbered 0 to is currently serving request at tracks and has finished a request at track The queue it request is kept in the FIFO order 86, , 91, , 94, , , , What is the total head movements needed to satisfy these request for the following disk-scheduling algorithms?

Suppose that a disk drive has cylinders, numbered 0 to The drive is currently serving a request at cylinder 43, and previous request was at cylinder The queue of pending request, in FIFO order is:. Starting from the current head position, what is the total distance in cylinders that the disk arm moves to satisfy all pending requests for each of the following disk scheduling algorithms? Explain the error handling and formatting operation on the disk.

What is the main objective of disk scheduling algorithms? Assume that we have disk with tracks and currently head is at track number A disk has 8 sector track and spins at rpm. How long does it take to read all 8 sectors using the following interleaving system? No interleaving. Single interleaving. Double interleaving. Suppose that the disk drive has 50 cylinders, numbered from 0 to The drive currently serving the request at cylinder 20 and the previous request was at cylinder The queue of pending request is 10, 22, 20, 2, 40, 6 and 38 in the order. A seek takes 6 msec per cylinder moved. How much seek time is needed for the following disk-scheduling algorithms? First-Come, First-Served. Shortest Seek Time First. What are the functions of Interrupt Handler?

Suppose that a disk drive has the cylinder numbered from 0 to The head is currently at cylinder number The queue for services of cylinder is as 86, , , , ,, , and What is the total head movement in each of the following disk algorithm to satisfy the requests? Suppose that a disk drive has the cylinder numbered, 0 to is currently serving a request at cylinder The queue it request is kept in the FIFO order 25, 17, , , , 15, , , What is the total head movement needed to satisfy these request for the following disk scheduling algorithm.

What are the differences between the trap and interrupt? What is the use of each function? How can you manage free disk space? Explain the linked list approach of managing free disk space with example. What is the advantage of interrupt over polling? Explain the working mechanism of interrupt controller. When programmed IO is suitable than other IO handling techniques? What do you mean by interrupt? How does DMA increase system concurrency? How does it complicate hardware design? A disk queue has the following request to read tracks: 87, , 4, 57, , 32, 67 and How does it complicate the hardware design?

Give reason. A work station running as heavily used web server. Explain the disk management with example. Unit: 1 Operating System Overview 16 questions. Define the essential properties of following types of operating systems: a. Batch b. Interactive c. Time sharing d. Real time e. Word processing b. Generating monthly bank statements c. Computing pi to million decimal places d. A flight simulator e. Define Monolithic and Layered System with suitable examples.

OR What is real time operating system? Classify the following applications as batch-oriented or interactive and explain the reason a Word processing b Generating monthly bank statements c Computing pi to a million decimal places. What are two modes of OS? Discuss different OS structures briefly. Time Sharing d. Real Time e. Differentiate between time sharing and real time system. Write short notes on any two : a. System programs b. Race condition c. Unit: 2 Process Management 44 questions.

For the processes listed in following table, draw a Gantt chart illustrating their execution using: a. First-come-First-Serve b. Short-Job-First c. Shortest-Remaining-Time-Next d. OR Why some process requires high priority? FCFS b. SJF c. For the processes listed in the following table, draw a Gantt chart illustrating their execution and calculate the average waiting time using : a. First-Come-First-Serve b. Define the term race condition. Differentiate between race conditions and critical regions.

How Produce-Consumer problem can be solved with sleep and wakeup primitives? What is the problem with thread implementation in user space when any one of the threads gets blocked while performing IO operation? What is problem associated with semaphores? Explain the concept of monitors in brief. What are the differences between Busy Waiting and Blocking? What is the purpose of system call in OS? Differentiate between thread and process. Unit: 3 Process Deadlocks 14 questions. OR Suppose three peoples are in line waiting for a department store to open for "the big sale". Use Banker algorithm. You should also have a clean and sanitized storage area to ensure that bugs and grain weevils do not infiltrate your stockpile.

Get tips from your rice supplier on how to prevent infestation. Opportunities: As in any business, you can later expand your rice retail business once you get your ROI. You could even become a rice dealer and get retailers to sell for you later on. Another option is to apply for cash advance with the use of your credit card. While doing self-promotion through your own Facebook account may still work, there are more efficient ways to fully establish an actual store online — be it on Facebook or by starting your own website. Plus, you can choose to either sell your own stocks or re-sell without keeping an inventory of a single item dropshipping. A big chunk of the cost will go to the marketing aspect of your store which involves Facebook ads, to say the least.

You can watch videos on Youtube on how to runs ads or hire a mentor which can cost you a lot more but will give you the right footing that you need to get started. The profit will be around 25 to 50 percent, depending on the cost of your Facebook ads, because it can vary depending on your target, product, and the season. Since the e-commerce scene is rapidly and relentlessly growing in the Philippines, now is also the best time for businesses to adapt it into their brick and mortar businesses in order to keep up with the competition.

Many e-commerce stores that first started online were able to expand it through a physical store later on. You can do that too! Many professionals are shifting towards freelancing because of the high returns and low stakes it offers. With more and more freelancers in the market, there is an increasing demand for more co-working spaces where they can work for longer hours without having to rent a full office.

Unlike traditional offices, co-working spaces offer ultra-short office leases that can be anywhere from a day to a month. Pre-operational requirements: To start a co-working space, you would need an initial capital that would cover the cost of renting a space in a central location that is safe and easy to find. Look for a space that has been vacant for a while, particularly in older and underutilized buildings where you may be able to secure an inexpensive lease.

Though being very contemporary and stylish is an added appeal, your co-working space should primarily have high-speed internet, fully fitted workstations, and office amenities. Opportunities: To make the most out of your rented space, you can offer other services such as a small coffee shop for added income. A laundry shop business has proven itself to be more than just a fad. The steady growth of condominiums and apartments in the city, coupled with the ever-increasing workload of most people, have made laundromats a stable business to own. Pre-operational requirements: This depends on the size and type of target market. If you are aiming for the industrial market, you will be needing millions.

You would also need to acquire the necessary government permits and registrations to get started. For this type of business, it is very important to try to be as near your market as possible. In this case, you will need only three to five square meters. If you want to clean the clothes onsite, it will take at least 25 square meters of floor area. Also, it is important to design a systematic washing process for the business, and have the proper materials and equipment for operation. One key to good income for a laundry shop business is to find that balance between cost and quality in choosing products to use.

Additional services that you can offer will mostly depend on your target market. A free parking space will give you an edge over competitors if most of your clients drive cars. Providing a door-to-door pick-up and delivery service has become an essential part of the business as well. For your rates, it is safer to just go with the current market rates and to compete on quality of service instead. Also, try to allocate a budget for promotional expenses to get and retain customers. Opportunities: You can provide dry cleaning, ironing and other related services for additional income. Avoid dipping into your savings when trying a business venture. Its success is never certain, and if the risk is high, it would be wise to rather apply for a personal loan instead of using your life savings.

Both Ministop and 7-Eleven provide a long list of assorted merchandise, this includes newspapers, magazines, soft drinks, fruit juices, sport drinks, hot and cold snacks, a limited number of grocery items such as canned soups, ready-to-eat meals, condiments, bread, cleaning supplies, paper products and toothpaste. If you have the funds but does not have the experience nor know how to run a business, then this is one of the more viable options available for you. Having a franchise with a recognizable name and branding would get you an immediate stream of clients and you will be receiving operational support from the franchisor. Pre-operational requirements: Both 7-Eleven and Ministop now offers a PhP1,, franchise which includes operational rights of the store, equipment and facilities, furniture and fixtures, air-conditioning system, signage and initial inventory.

However, as a franchisee, you still have to spend more for the rental space and the crew that will work the store for you. Location is key in this type of business and you would need a space with a floor area between square meters to get franchise approval. One requirement in the pre-operating stage is getting the needed certification. Then you have to find a space of at least 15 square meters to house your drugstore and a storage room for medicines. Conduct research on the nature and classification of drugs and begin by stocking up on each category of medicine i. Keep in mind that each medicine must be stored in its particular recommended environment and temperature. As with most of the businesses we listed here, location is key in this venture. And lastly, you must have a Registered Pharmacist working for you.

Without one, your drugstore business will not operate. Opportunities: Growth depends entirely on the area you are covering and the range of products you are carrying. But if you get the right mix, you can start another branch or franchise out your drug store. With advanced progress in technology, communication, and the advent of the internet, the world has indeed become smaller thus making it easier to reach and transact with a wider audience anywhere in the world. There are still open opportunities and it takes a lot of creativity to find more business ideas that can provide solutions to your target market. All businesses require diligence and dedication. Do your homework, conduct thorough research and create a business plan.

These will be your entrepreneurial blueprints and your guide in navigating the exciting path of working for yourself.

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