⌛ Oj Simpson Ethical Issues

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Oj Simpson Ethical Issues



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O.J. Simpson Murder Case Analysis - Mental Health \u0026 Personality

To investigate the effect of demographics and patient characteristics of the practice, a multivariable logistic regression of the probability of a low rate of prescribing second-line antibiotics will be assessed. The primary endpoint will be the prescription rate of second-line antibiotics after 12 months. This will be measured at a practice level, and will be based on the aggregated data of each practice. In comparison to former studies, REDARES aims to develop interventions without the need for expensive and time-consuming training or the provision of other educational media in participating practices. It is rather based on an information transfer and regular feedback, which, if proven effective, can be implemented in usual practice.

To adjust for differing baseline prescribing rates of second-line antibiotics, the sample-size calculation of the primary analysis was based on ANCOVA, with baseline prescribing rates as a covariate. Following Dicheva et al. At the practice level, there is no data available for the standard deviation of prescribing rates. Patient involvement in clinical trials has become increasingly relevant [ 25 ]. In a previous RCT, a close collaboration with a patient board was established to increase patient participation at different study levels [ 26 ].

The forum was introduced to discuss the design of departmental scientific studies and ensure that they are comprehensible and relevant. The members of the forum were informed about the aims and processes of the study and will be asked for feedback. Furthermore, we will discuss the results and the ways how to disseminate the key messages. The study advisory board consists of a FP, a pharmacist, a layperson and a scientist with experience in this field. They are involved in issues of practice feasibility and in the discussion of the results. The Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty, University of Wuerzburg, judged that the project did not involve any medical or epidemiological research on human subjects, and as such adopted a simplified assessment protocol.

The project was approved without any reservation under the proposal number FP practice teams will obtain the treatment cases, and transfer the anonymized, aggregated data to the University of Wuerzburg. Feedback will be sent out in the form of aggregated data, such as the number of cases, and the antibiotic prescribed. There will be no transmission of individual patient data. Therefore, informed consent of individual patients was not needed. The data provided will be analyzed at the study center in Wuerzburg, which will provide a benchmark response.

This procedure will guarantee anonymity. We expect that the multimodal intervention that includes information on guideline recommendations, on regional resistance data and feedback of prescribing behaviour for FPs will enhance guideline adherence in this group. Continuous process evaluation will prepare for later implementation in practice if the intervention proves feasible. A limitation of the study might be the manually extracted retrospective outcome data from the electronic patient records, which will rely on the documentation quality.

Selection of research-interested practices is possible and the sample will probably not fully represent the usual practices. We are sure the protocol of the study will be of interest for physicians, epidemiologists and researchers, who struggle with the increase of antibiotic resistance due to inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions, particularly as effective anti-infective agents are essential. Incidence, severity, help seeking, and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infection: a population-based survey. Br J Gen Pract. Article Google Scholar. Dicheva S. Urinary tract infections in women Harnwegsinfekte bei Frauen.

In: Glaeske G, Schicktanz C, editors. Neue Ausg. Siegburg: Asgard Verlagsservice; Comparison of antibiotic treatment guidelines for urinary tract infections in 15 European countries: results of an online survey. Int J Antimicrob Agents. S3 guideline: Burning when urinating. S3-Leitlinie: Brennen beim Wasserlassen Accessed 15 Apr S3 guideline: Epidemiology, diagnostics, therapy, prevention and management of uncomplicated bacterial, outpatient acquired urinary tract infections in adult patients. Aktualisierung Urinary tract infection lower : antimicrobial prescribing. Published: 31 October Accessed 02 Aug Management of urinary tract infections: what do doctors recommend and patients do?

An observational study in German primary care. BMC Infect Dis. Ciprofloxacin resistance in community- and hospital-acquired Escherichia coli urinary tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance in individual patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Effectiveness and efficiency of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies. Health Technol Assess. Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing practices in ambulatory care.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Google Scholar. Clinician-targeted interventions to influence antibiotic prescribing behaviour for acute respiratory infections in primary care: an overview of systematic reviews. PubMed Google Scholar. Effectiveness of multifaceted educational programme to reduce antibiotic dispensing in primary care: practice based randomised controlled trial.

Reducing antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections in family practice: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating a multifaceted peer-group-based intervention. Intervention to improve the quality of antimicrobial prescribing for urinary tract infection: a cluster randomized trial. Antibiotics in urinary-tract infections. Sustained change in prescribing habits by practice test and self-reflection: a mixed methods before-after study. BMJ Qual Saf. Clinical decision support and appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing: a randomized trial.

Provision of social norm feedback to high prescribers of antibiotics in general practice: a pragmatic national randomised controlled trial. Changes in resistance among coliform bacteraemia associated with a primary care antimicrobial stewardship intervention: a population-based interrupted time series study. PLoS Med. Developing and selecting interventions for translating knowledge to action. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. OJ L , 4. In force: This act has been changed. Accessed 02 August Patient engagement in research: a systematic review. Res Involv Engag. Accessed 20 April Download references.

We would like to express our gratitude for the thorough review of the article to Dr. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Statistical concept: PH, VR. Approval of the final version of the manuscript: IG. Guarantor of the study: IG. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Patient informed consent will not be needed, as only aggregated and anonymized data will be collected. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Reprints and Permissions. REDuction of Antibiotic RESistance REDARES in urinary tract infections using treatments according to national clinical guidelines: study protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial with a multimodal intervention in primary care.

BMC Infect Dis 21, Download citation. Received : 27 August Accepted : 06 September Published : 23 September Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Both his parents were kept in internment camps for Japanese Americans with their families during the Second World War. Ito attended John Marshall High School , where he was student body president and received the Scholar Athlete award in He earned his bachelor's degree with honors from the University of California, Los Angeles in , and his J. He then joined the Los Angeles district attorney's office in , working in the hardcore gang unit and the organized crime and terror unit, among others.

In , he married Margaret Ann York, the first woman to attain the rank of Deputy Chief in the Los Angeles Police Department and that department's highest ranking woman officer when she retired in In , he presided over the trial of financier Charles H. Keating Jr. Keating's ensuing ten-year sentence was later overturned on appeal because Ito had neglected to instruct the jury to determine whether Keating intended to defraud investors. It was the prosecution's position that Keating was liable as a matter of strict liability. Ito presided over the murder trial of O. Simpson , at which Simpson was acquitted. His decision to allow television coverage of the trial was controversial, [8] and Ito faced criticism for seeming to enjoy the press and for allowing too many sidebars and recesses.

During the trial, the prosecution requested that Ito recuse himself when it came to light that his wife, Margaret York, had been detective Mark Fuhrman's superior officer in the past. Fuhrman had been called to testify by the prosecution regarding his discovery of evidence in the case. During cross-examination, Fuhrman claimed that he had not used racial epithets to refer to African-Americans during the last ten years. Simpson's defense team unearthed tapes in which Fuhrman had used racial epithets as recently as , and they wished to introduce them as evidence to prove that Fuhrman had perjured himself, in order to discredit his testimony.

However, in the tapes, Fuhrman disparages York's appearance and suggests that she used her gender to advance in the police force. Ito declined to give interviews regarding the O. Simpson murder trial because ethical guidelines for California trial-court judges forbid commenting on pending matters or matters likely to come before the courts. He has noted his disbelief that public interest in the trial extended through the "turgid" DNA section of the trial. He has used his status to work on issues of judicial reform, such as increasing the number of interpreters and enforcing rules for foreign-national defendants in the court.

Ito retired in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American judge. Margaret York. Main article: O. April 10, Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 17, Archived from the original on July 8,

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