🔥🔥🔥 Black Man In Contemporary Society Analysis
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Photo courtesy of voanews. Sociologists study social events, interactions, and patterns, and they develop a theory in an attempt to explain why things work as they do. A sociological theory seeks to explain social phenomena. Theories can be used to create a testable proposition, called a hypothesis , about society Allan Theories vary in scope depending on the scale of the issues that they are meant to explain. Macro-level theories relate to large-scale issues and large groups of people, while micro-level theories look at very specific relationships between individuals or small groups.
Grand theories attempt to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions such as why societies form and why they change. Sociological theory is constantly evolving and should never be considered complete. Classic sociological theories are still considered important and current, but new sociological theories build upon the work of their predecessors and add to them Calhoun In sociology, a few theories provide broad perspectives that help explain many different aspects of social life, and these are called paradigms. Paradigms are philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them.
Three paradigms have come to dominate sociological thinking, because they provide useful explanations: structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. Watch the following video for an overview of each of the sociological paradigms. First, the video introduces major sociological theories in general terms, then gives an overview of structural-functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. Structural functionalism views society as an organism in which the various parts, or social structures, fulfill certain functions to meet the needs of the society.
Conflict theory imagines society as a struggle for scarce resources and focuses on the conflicts created by competition and power differences. Conflict theory includes sub-categories such as class conflict theory, race conflict theory, and gender conflict theory. Symbolic interactionism focuses more on individuals and the shared reality that people create through their own experiences. Figure 2. Functionalism emphasizes how various social institutions work together to meet the needs of a society. Structural-functional theory , also called functionalism, sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of the individuals in that society.
Functionalism grew out of the writings of English philosopher and biologist, Hebert Spencer — , who saw similarities between society and the human body. He argued that just as the various organs of the body work together to keep the body functioning, the various parts of society work together to keep society functioning Spencer The parts of society that Spencer referred to were the social institutions , or patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs, such as government, education, family, healthcare, religion, and the economy.
Durkheim believed that society is a complex system of interrelated and interdependent parts that work together to maintain stability Durkheim , and that society is held together by shared values, languages, and symbols. Durkheim believed that individuals may make up society, but in order to study society, sociologists have to look beyond individuals to social facts. Social facts are the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life Durkheim Each of these social facts serves one or more functions within a society. He studied social ties within a group, or social solidarity , and hypothesized that differences in suicide rates might be explained by religion-based differences.
Durkheim gathered a large amount of data about Europeans who had ended their lives, and he did indeed find differences based on religion. Another noted structural functionalist, Robert Merton — , pointed out that social processes often have many functions. Manifest functions are the consequences of a social process that are sought or anticipated, while latent functions are the unsought consequences of a social process. A manifest function of college education, for example, includes gaining knowledge, preparing for a career, and finding a good job that utilizes that education.
Latent functions of your college years include meeting new people, participating in extracurricular activities, or even finding a spouse or partner. Another latent function of education is creating a hierarchy of employment based on the level of education attained. Latent functions can be beneficial, neutral, or harmful. Social processes that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society are called dysfunctions. In education, examples of dysfunction include getting bad grades, truancy, dropping out, not graduating, and not finding suitable employment. Also problematic is the somewhat circular nature of this theory; repetitive behavior patterns are assumed to have a function, yet we profess to know that they have a function only because they are repeated.
Many sociologists now believe that functionalism is no longer useful as a macro-level theory, but that it does serve a useful purpose in some mid-level analyses. Figure 3. Some sociologists see the online world contributing to the creation of an emerging global culture. Are you a part of any global communities? Sociologists around the world look closely for signs of what would be an unprecedented event: the emergence of a global culture. In the past, empires such as those that existed in China, Europe, Africa, and Central and South America linked people from many different countries, but those people rarely became part of a common culture. They lived too far from each other, spoke different languages, practiced different religions, and traded few goods. Today, increases in communication, travel, and trade have made the world a much smaller place.
More and more people are able to communicate with each other instantly—wherever they are located—by telephone, video, and text. They share movies, television shows, music, games, and information over the Internet. Students can study with teachers and pupils from the other side of the globe. Governments find it harder to hide conditions inside their countries from the rest of the world. Sociologists research many different aspects of this potential global culture. Some explore the dynamics involved in the social interactions of global online communities, such as when members feel a closer kinship to other group members than to people residing in their own countries. Other sociologists study the impact this growing international culture has on smaller, less-powerful local cultures.
Yet other researchers explore how international markets and the outsourcing of labor impact social inequalities. Conflict theory looks at society as a competition for limited resources. This perspective is a macro-level approach most identified with the writings of German philosopher and sociologist Karl Marx — , who saw society as being made up of two classes, the bourgeoisie capitalist and the proletariat workers , who must compete for social, material, and political resources such as food and housing, employment, education, and leisure time. Social institutions like government, education, and religion reflect this competition in their inherent inequalities and help maintain the unequal social structure.
The bourgeoisie owns and controls the means of production, which leads to exploitation due to the profit motive. In this arrangement, proletarians have only their labor to sell, and do not own or control capital. These are just some of the structural constrains that prevent workers from joining together in what Marx called class consciousness , or a common group identity as exploited proletarians and potential revolutionaries. Ida B. Wells articulated the conflict perspective when she theorized a connection between an increase in lynching and an increase in black socio-economic mobility in the United States from the late s into the midth century.
She also examined competition within the feminist movement as women fought for the right to vote, yet the presumably egalitarian mainstream suffragist movements were headed by white women who excluded black women from suffrage. DuBois also examined race in the U. Race conflict paradigms will be examined later in the course in the module devoted to race and ethnicity.
DuBois is a classic sociologist who, after earning a Ph. The Philadelphia Negro is considered one of the first examples of scientifically framed and conducted sociology research. He entered the national stage with an article written for The Atlantic in in which he described double consciousness. One feels his two-ness, — an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder. The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife, — this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self.
In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He does not wish to Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa; he does not with to bleach his Negro blood in a flood of white Americanism, for he believes—foolishly, perhaps, but fervently—that Negro blood has yet a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without losing the opportunity of self-development. Wright Mills, who coined the term sociological imagination , also used conflict theory to examine systems of power and the ways in which government, military, and corporations forming a power elite in the United States in the s.
Bernie Sanders raised these issues in the U. The writer describes the Man in Black as a kind, sympathetic, and genial person with a compassionate heart. Outwardly, he seems unkind, looking like a rude, curt, and stern person. This is in contrast with his inner personality. In those days the English society considered the male population to be aggressive, manly, stern and chauvinistic. The dominance of males by their ultra masculine nature in the family is encouraged and accepted socially and politically.
Goldsmith discourages these stereotype aspects of male dominance in this essay. He mocks the way the society and politics of that time regarded male authority as prestigious and dignified. Unknown October 23, at PM. Unknown July 8, at PM. Sharanya November 11, at AM. Unknown March 11, at PM. Unknown March 23, at PM. Unknown April 18, at AM. Unknown July 4, at AM.And for groups who don't feel Black Man In Contemporary Society Analysis detrimental effects of being stereotyped Black Man In Contemporary Society Analysis their everyday lives, seeing Black Man In Contemporary Society Analysis poorly represented causes much less pain. They Interpersonal Communication Diary for instance Black Man In Contemporary Society Analysis farmer, Guangxing, Tyler Boatwright: A Short Story persevered in searching for moral certainty in the Black Man In Contemporary Society Analysis of relativism and corruption. Curiously, movie Russians are quite often played by non-Russians. M Chunnu Eds.