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Types Of Liberalism

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Dr Brandon Turner on Two Kinds of Liberalism

This is an eighth type. To work half-heartedly without a definite plan or direction; to work perfunctorily and muddle along--"So long as one remains a monk, one goes on tolling the bell. To regard oneself as having rendered great service to the revolution, to pride oneself on being a veteran, to disdain minor assignments while being quite unequal to major tasks, to be slipshod in work and slack in study. This is a tenth type.

To be aware of one's own mistakes and yet make no attempt to correct them, taking a liberal attitude towards oneself. This is an eleventh type. We could name more. But these eleven are the principal types. They are all manifestations of liberalism. Liberalism is extremely harmful in a revolutionary collective. It is a corrosive which eats away unity, undermines cohesion, causes apathy and creates dissension.

It robs the revolutionary ranks of compact organization and strict discipline, prevents policies from being carried through and alienates the Party organizations from the masses which the Party leads. It is an extremely bad tendency. Liberalism stems from petty-bourgeois selfishness, it places personal interests first and the interests of the revolution second, and this gives rise to ideological, political and organizational liberalism. People who are liberals look upon the principles of Marxism as abstract dogma.

They approve of Marxism, but are not prepared to practice it or to practice it in full; they are not prepared to replace their liberalism by Marxism. These people have their Marxism, but they have their liberalism as well--they talk Marxism but practice liberalism; they apply Marxism to others but liberalism to themselves. They keep both kinds of goods in stock and find a use for each. This is how the minds of certain people work. Liberalism is a manifestation of opportunism and conflicts fundamentally with Marxism. It is negative and objectively has the effect of helping the enemy; that is why the enemy welcomes its preservation in our midst. Such being its nature, there should be no place for it in the ranks of the revolution.

We must use Marxism, which is positive in spirit, to overcome liberalism, which is negative. A Communist should have largeness of mind and he should be staunch and active, looking upon the interests of the revolution as his very life and subordinating his personal interests to those of the revolution; always and everywhere he should adhere to principle and wage a tireless struggle against all incorrect ideas and actions, so as to consolidate the collective life of the Party and strengthen the ties between the Party and the masses; he should be more concerned about the Party and the masses than about any private person, and more concerned about others than about himself.

Only thus can he be considered a Communist. All loyal, honest, active and upright Communists must unite to oppose the liberal tendencies shown by certain people among us, and set them on the right path. One critical thing about realism and liberalism is that they confide and believe in the need for power by actors Lukes However, there is a difference in the manner in which the two theories expresses the channels of pursuing power by the actors. According to Wechsler , realism is a theory that is two dimensional. The theory was advanced in the mid of the 20 th century by Hans Morgenthau. The development period of this theory is critical to understanding the dimension of the theory in explaining the concept of power.

The theory was developed at a time when the world was witnessing a vacuum in the balance of power, which was created by the Second World War. Realism can be comprehended from the 19 th century European politics where power was one of the main issues that brought about conflict between European nations. The 19 th century Europe was characterized by numerous wars and territorial conquests. These developments entered the 20 th century and developed through the mid of the 20 th century.

The balance of power was the key center of friction between the United States and the Soviet Union during the cold war. The current political developments in international relations, therefore, cannot be separated from the concept of power Lukes, Realism, which is confounded on the antecedents of power by the states, is quite pessimistic when it comes to the issue of power modalities by states. This is backed by the contemporary developments in the international political economy, where each actor uses various tools to consolidate power. Realism believes that power is strongly founded in military dominance of a given state over other states.

The acquisition, exercise and consolidation of military power is the main goal of states, thus most of the actions in relations between states justify the search for power and the need to increase power of states. According to realism, the recent wars that have been waged by the United States on other states, for example the US war on Iraq and the US war in Afghanistan are forms of actions that portray power through military dominance Lukes, The struggle for power and subsequently war are brought about by the search for power, which is the core dilemma of realism.

There are a number of developments that have emerged in international politics, which seem to draw away the linear view about the interest of states. Global politics can no longer be solely explained by basing on a single attribute of power as opined by the proponents of realism Williams, Realistic schools of thought that seek to broaden the attributes of power in international politics include neo-realism, which tries to depict the international system as an interactive system where power is not solely based on military dominance as opined by the realism school of thinkers.

However, the status of anarchy as opined by realists cannot be completely wished away in as far as sovereignty continues to be one of the main pillars that define a state. On the other hand, liberalists approach the concept of power from an optimistic point of view. They explain power in terms of the diverse activities that takes place in the interaction among states. Unlike the scope with which power is comprehended by realists, liberalism expands the scale of comprehension of power.

According to the liberalists, power includes other aspects like trade, cultural interaction and cooperate advancements, among numerous other interactions. States obtain power through other means rather than military dominance. According to liberalism, the power is embedded in what is referred to as the loci of power. This implies that power is gained from different sources and not just only military action. Liberalism embraces openness in the relations between states, which gives states a chance to prosper in the social and economic realms. Nation states today compete in other fields apart from military power. This is spearheaded by the efforts of governments and international bodies, which see the creation of a favorable environment for the advancement of economic and social interaction.

There is an increase in social and economic cooperation between states today. A substantial number of countries in the world today have gained power through the pursuance of economic goals. Such countries are said to have taken advantage of the open international markets to advance trade. Examples of such countries are found in the South East Asian region. The basis of the power of these countries is the ability to advance in trade and economics. It can, therefore, be said that there is an agreement on the issue of the exercise of power between the realism and liberalism.

The international system is best understood through the exploration of the systems theory. According to this theory, the international system is comprised of actors; states. The interaction between states is controlled by the interests of states. Both realists and liberalists present their arguments concerning the nature of the relations that take place in the international systems. Such actions are fostered by the interests of states and the approach that is taken by each state when relating to other states in the international system. Realism embraces anarchism in as far as the definition of the international system is concerned. The main actors in the international system are states.

Realists believe that the states are independent actors, which act to protect their interests through the application of rationality. As they interact, each state seeks to attain a survival position. This justifies the question of interest in the relations between states in the international system Waltz, The role of other players is drawn away by realists. However, the contemporary theoretical development depicts the advancement of the complex systems theory, which appreciates the existence of other actors in the international system. While other players are drawn into the international system, they do not depict a significant change in the comprehension of the international system by realists.

Realists believe that the other actors in the international system, in as much as they claim to be independent, act to safeguard and promote the interests of states in the international system. The development of other actors like the international bodies is done by states. States are guided by interests when fostering the establishment of international organizations. An example is the United Nations, which is often seen by a substantial number of anti-western states as a tool for promoting the interests of the United States and other western allies Harrison, When it comes to the concept of the international system, liberalism seems to differ with realism in terms of what is seen to be the actors in the international system.

According to liberalism, the international system is comprised of a large number of actors, thus nation states are just actors in the international system Harrison, Liberalism attempts to bring out the functional differentiation of the actors in the international system. Value is given to each actor in the international system. This differs with realism, which attributes the functions of the non-state actors to the influence that is drawn from the states. Examples are the World Organization, which plays a critical role in liberating the global trading environment.

The role of a body like the United Nations Organization can no longer be overemphasized Harrison, However, the issue of power and control in the international system is the main undoing factor in the advancement of liberalism arguments.

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