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As I said, we tend to think of burnout as affecting doctors, teachers, office workers. Now, forced productivity or not feeling a sense of purpose at a day job are just two of the reasons. On the contrary, many people are doing work they consider more important than ever. Many of us have been cut off from the people and activities that gave our life meaning before. But more than a year on, says Torsten Voigt, a sociologist at RWTH Aachen University in Germany who has researched burnout, this initial expenditure of energy may be catching up with us. People in lower-paid jobs are in fact at particular risk of burnout, precisely because they are given less resources and less support. The world in which burnout was initially conceived was quite different to the one we live and work in today.
The gig economy, automation, smartphones, zoom calls have transformed the way many of us work. Though the World Health Organisation has not defined burnout as an occupational disease, the symptoms of burnout have become medical. Living through the pandemic has been making us sick. Any primary-care doctor will tell you that the physical-health toll of collective trauma — high blood pressure, headaches, herniated discs — have become quite common.
And this has been before many people have returned to the office or resumed their pre-pandemic schedules. The mental-health crisis of the pandemic is also very real. According to research by the Kaiser Family Foundation, a staggering four in 10 adults reported symptoms of anxiety and depression, a quadrupling of the pre-pandemic rate. More than one in four mothers reported that the pandemic has had a major impact on their mental health. I do not suppose that people in Malta have been spared the crisis, though the percentages may be different. This may be little comfort to those suffering, but this moment may pose an opportunity to rethink our roles at work and to reconsider our relationship with work — not just on an individual level, but on a societal one.
Addressing burnout in a systemic way could mean reducing workloads, redistributing resources, or rethinking workplace hierarchies. One suggestion, is to give people more autonomy in their roles so that they can play to their individual strengths — fitting the job around the person rather than making a person fit into the job. But it could also mean grappling with broader inequalities, in the workplace and beyond. This could mean improving a toxic company culture, adapting parental leave and childcare policies, or introducing more flexible working.
Synagogues are Jewish houses of prayer and study. They usually contain separate rooms for prayer the main sanctuary , smaller rooms for study, and often an area for community or educational use. There is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly. The Reform movement mostly refer to their synagogues as temples. Some traditional features of a synagogue are:. In addition to synagogues, other buildings of significance in Judaism include yeshivas , or institutions of Jewish learning, and mikvahs , which are ritual baths.
The Jewish dietary laws are known as kashrut. Food prepared in accordance with them is termed kosher , and food that is not kosher is also known as treifah or treif. People who observe these laws are colloquially said to be "keeping kosher". Many of the laws apply to animal-based foods. For example, in order to be considered kosher, mammals must have split hooves and chew their cud. The pig is arguably the most well-known example of a non-kosher animal.
For seafood to be kosher, the animal must have fins and scales. Certain types of seafood, such as shellfish , crustaceans , and eels , are therefore considered non-kosher. Concerning birds, a list of non-kosher species is given in the Torah. The exact translations of many of the species have not survived, and some non-kosher birds' identities are no longer certain. However, traditions exist about the kashrut status of a few birds.
For example, both chickens and turkeys are permitted in most communities. Other types of animals, such as amphibians , reptiles , and most insects , are prohibited altogether. In addition to the requirement that the species be considered kosher, meat and poultry but not fish must come from a healthy animal slaughtered in a process known as shechitah. Without the proper slaughtering practices even an otherwise kosher animal will be rendered treif. The slaughtering process is intended to be quick and relatively painless to the animal.
Forbidden parts of animals include the blood , some fats , and the area in and around the sciatic nerve. Jewish law also forbids the consumption of meat and dairy products together. The waiting period between eating meat and eating dairy varies by the order in which they are consumed and by community, and can extend for up to six hours. Based on the Biblical injunction against cooking a kid in its mother's milk, this rule is mostly derived from the Oral Torah , the Talmud and Rabbinic law. Chicken and other kosher birds are considered the same as meat under the laws of kashrut , but the prohibition is Rabbinic, not Biblical.
The use of dishes , serving utensils, and ovens may make food treif that would otherwise be kosher. Utensils that have been used to prepare non-kosher food, or dishes that have held meat and are now used for dairy products, render the food treif under certain conditions. Furthermore, all Orthodox and some Conservative authorities forbid the consumption of processed grape products made by non-Jews, due to ancient pagan practices of using wine in rituals. Some Conservative authorities permit wine and grape juice made without rabbinic supervision.
The Torah does not give specific reasons for most of the laws of kashrut. However, a number of explanations have been offered, including maintaining ritual purity, teaching impulse control, encouraging obedience to God, improving health, reducing cruelty to animals and preserving the distinctness of the Jewish community. For example, people are forbidden from consuming the blood of birds and mammals because, according to the Torah, this is where animal souls are contained. In contrast, the Torah forbids Israelites from eating non-kosher species because "they are unclean". Survival concerns supersede all the laws of kashrut , as they do for most halakhot.
The Tanakh describes circumstances in which a person who is tahor or ritually pure may become tamei or ritually impure. Some of these circumstances are contact with human corpses or graves , seminal flux, vaginal flux, menstruation , and contact with people who have become impure from any of these. An important subcategory of the ritual purity laws relates to the segregation of menstruating women.
These laws are also known as niddah , literally "separation", or family purity. Vital aspects of halakha for traditionally observant Jews, they are not usually followed by Jews in liberal denominations. Especially in Orthodox Judaism , the Biblical laws are augmented by Rabbinical injunctions. For example, the Torah mandates that a woman in her normal menstrual period must abstain from sexual intercourse for seven days. A woman whose menstruation is prolonged must continue to abstain for seven more days after bleeding has stopped. In addition, Rabbinical law forbids the husband from touching or sharing a bed with his wife during this period.
Afterwards, purification can occur in a ritual bath called a mikveh . Traditional Ethiopian Jews keep menstruating women in separate huts and, similar to Karaite practice , do not allow menstruating women into their temples because of a temple's special sanctity. Emigration to Israel and the influence of other Jewish denominations have led to Ethiopian Jews adopting more normative Jewish practices. The role of the priesthood in Judaism has significantly diminished since the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE when priests attended to the Temple and sacrifices.
The priesthood is an inherited position, and although priests no longer have any but ceremonial duties, they are still honored in many Jewish communities. Many Orthodox Jewish communities believe that they will be needed again for a future Third Temple and need to remain in readiness for future duty. From the time of the Mishnah and Talmud to the present, Judaism has required specialists or authorities for the practice of very few rituals or ceremonies.
A Jew can fulfill most requirements for prayer by himself. Some activities—reading the Torah and haftarah a supplementary portion from the Prophets or Writings , the prayer for mourners, the blessings for bridegroom and bride, the complete grace after meals—require a minyan , the presence of ten Jews. The most common professional clergy in a synagogue are:. Jewish prayer services do involve two specified roles, which are sometimes, but not always, filled by a rabbi or hazzan in many congregations.
In other congregations these roles are filled on an ad-hoc basis by members of the congregation who lead portions of services on a rotating basis:. The three preceding positions are usually voluntary and considered an honor. Since the Enlightenment large synagogues have often adopted the practice of hiring rabbis and hazzans to act as shatz and baal kriyah , and this is still typically the case in many Conservative and Reform congregations. However, in most Orthodox synagogues these positions are filled by laypeople on a rotating or ad-hoc basis.
Although most congregations hire one or more Rabbis, the use of a professional hazzan is generally declining in American congregations, and the use of professionals for other offices is rarer still. At its core, the Tanakh is an account of the Israelites ' relationship with God from their earliest history until the building of the Second Temple c. Abraham is hailed as the first Hebrew and the father of the Jewish people. As a reward for his act of faith in one God, he was promised that Isaac , his second son, would inherit the Land of Israel then called Canaan. At Mount Sinai , they received the Torah —the five books of Moses. These books, together with Nevi'im and Ketuvim are known as Torah Shebikhtav as opposed to the Oral Torah , which refers to the Mishnah and the Talmud.
Eventually, God led them to the land of Israel where the tabernacle was planted in the city of Shiloh for over years to rally the nation against attacking enemies. As time went on, the spiritual level of the nation declined to the point that God allowed the Philistines to capture the tabernacle. The people of Israel then told Samuel the prophet that they needed to be governed by a permanent king, and Samuel appointed Saul to be their King. When the people pressured Saul into going against a command conveyed to him by Samuel, God told Samuel to appoint David in his stead.
Once King David was established, he told the prophet Nathan that he would like to build a permanent temple, and as a reward for his actions, God promised David that he would allow his son, Solomon , to build the First Temple and the throne would never depart from his children. Rabbinic tradition holds that the details and interpretation of the law, which are called the Oral Torah or oral law , were originally an unwritten tradition based upon what God told Moses on Mount Sinai. However, as the persecutions of the Jews increased and the details were in danger of being forgotten, these oral laws were recorded by Rabbi Judah HaNasi Judah the Prince in the Mishnah , redacted circa CE.
The Talmud was a compilation of both the Mishnah and the Gemara , rabbinic commentaries redacted over the next three centuries. The Gemara originated in two major centers of Jewish scholarship, Palestine and Babylonia. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud. It was compiled sometime during the 4th century in Palestine. According to critical scholars , the Torah consists of inconsistent texts edited together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts.
After Solomon's reign, the nation split into two kingdoms, the Kingdom of Israel in the north and the Kingdom of Judah in the south. The Kingdom of Judah continued as an independent state until it was conquered by a Babylonian army in the early 6th century BCE, destroying the First Temple that was at the center of ancient Jewish worship. The Judean elite was exiled to Babylonia and this is regarded as the first Jewish Diaspora.
Later many of them returned to their homeland after the subsequent conquest of Babylonia by the Persians seventy years later, a period known as the Babylonian Captivity. A new Second Temple was constructed, and old religious practices were resumed. During the early years of the Second Temple, the highest religious authority was a council known as the Great Assembly, led by Ezra of the Book of Ezra. Among other accomplishments of the Great Assembly, the last books of the Bible were written at this time and the canon sealed. Hadrian built a pagan idol on the Temple grounds and prohibited circumcision; these acts of ethnocide provoked the Bar Kokhba revolt — CE after which the Romans banned the study of the Torah and the celebration of Jewish holidays, and forcibly removed virtually all Jews from Judea.
In CE, however, Jews were granted Roman citizenship and Judaism was recognized as a religio licita "legitimate religion" until the rise of Gnosticism and Early Christianity in the fourth century. Following the destruction of Jerusalem and the expulsion of the Jews, Jewish worship stopped being centrally organized around the Temple, prayer took the place of sacrifice, and worship was rebuilt around the community represented by a minimum of ten adult men and the establishment of the authority of rabbis who acted as teachers and leaders of individual communities see Jewish diaspora. After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, these sects vanished. Consequently, a number of other core tenets of the Pharisees' belief system which became the basis for modern Judaism , were also dismissed by the Sadducees.
The Samaritans practiced a similar religion, which is traditionally considered separate from Judaism. Like the Sadducees who relied only on the Torah, some Jews in the 8th and 9th centuries rejected the authority and divine inspiration of the oral law as recorded in the Mishnah and developed by later rabbis in the two Talmuds , relying instead only upon the Tanakh. These included the Isunians, the Yudganites, the Malikites , [ clarification needed ] and others.
They soon developed oral traditions of their own, which differed from the rabbinic traditions, and eventually formed the Karaite sect. Karaites exist in small numbers today, mostly living in Israel. Rabbinical and Karaite Jews each hold that the others are Jews, but that the other faith is erroneous. Many of these groups have developed differences in their prayers, traditions and accepted canons; however, these distinctions are mainly the result of their being formed at some cultural distance from normative rabbinic Judaism, rather than based on any doctrinal dispute.
Antisemitism arose during the Middle Ages , in the form of persecutions, pogroms , forced conversions , expulsions, social restrictions and ghettoization. This was different in quality from the repressions of Jews which had occurred in ancient times. Ancient repressions were politically motivated and Jews were treated the same as members of other ethnic groups. With the rise of the Churches, the main motive for attacks on Jews changed from politics to religion and the religious motive for such attacks was specifically derived from Christian views about Jews and Judaism. It originated in a time of persecution of the Jewish people when European Jews had turned inward to Talmud study; many felt that most expressions of Jewish life had become too "academic", and that they no longer had any emphasis on spirituality or joy.
Its adherents favored small and informal gatherings called Shtiebel , which, in contrast to a traditional synagogue, could be used both as a place of worship and for celebrations involving dancing, eating, and socializing. Unlike other religions, which typically expanded through word of mouth or by use of print, Hasidism spread largely owing to Tzadiks , who used their influence to encourage others to follow the movement. Hasidism appealed to many Europeans because it was easy to learn, did not require full immediate commitment, and presented a compelling spectacle.
Waves of Jewish immigration in the s carried it to the United States. The movement itself claims to be nothing new, but a refreshment of original Judaism. As some have put it: "they merely re-emphasized that which the generations had lost". Nevertheless, early on there was a serious schism between Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jews. European Jews who rejected the Hasidic movement were dubbed by the Hasidim as Misnagdim , lit. Some of the reasons for the rejection of Hasidic Judaism were the exuberance of Hasidic worship, its deviation from tradition in ascribing infallibility and miracles to their leaders, and the concern that it might become a messianic sect.
Over time differences between the Hasidim and their opponents have slowly diminished and both groups are now considered part of Haredi Judaism. In the late 18th century CE, Europe was swept by a group of intellectual, social and political movements known as the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment led to reductions in the European laws that prohibited Jews to interact with the wider secular world, thus allowing Jews access to secular education and experience.
A parallel Jewish movement, Haskalah or the "Jewish Enlightenment", began, especially in Central Europe and Western Europe, in response to both the Enlightenment and these new freedoms. It placed an emphasis on integration with secular society and a pursuit of non-religious knowledge through reason. With the promise of political emancipation, many Jews saw no reason to continue to observe Jewish law and increasing numbers of Jews assimilated into Christian Europe.
Modern religious movements of Judaism all formed in reaction to this trend. In Central Europe, followed by Great Britain and the United States, Reform or Liberal Judaism developed, relaxing legal obligations especially those that limited Jewish relations with non-Jews , emulating Protestant decorum in prayer, and emphasizing the ethical values of Judaism's Prophetic tradition. Modern Orthodox Judaism developed in reaction to Reform Judaism, by leaders who argued that Jews could participate in public life as citizens equal to Christians while maintaining the observance of Jewish law. Meanwhile, in the United States, wealthy Reform Jews helped European scholars, who were Orthodox in practice but critical and skeptical in their study of the Bible and Talmud, to establish a seminary to train rabbis for immigrants from Eastern Europe.
These left-wing Orthodox rabbis were joined by right-wing Reform rabbis who felt that Jewish law should not be entirely abandoned, to form the Conservative movement. After massive movements of Jews following The Holocaust and the creation of the state of Israel , these movements have competed for followers from among traditional Jews in or from other countries. Jewish religious practice varies widely through all levels of observance. According to the edition of the National Jewish Population Survey , in the United States' Jewish community—the world's second largest—4.
Birth rates for American Jews have dropped from 2. Due to intermarriage and low birth rates, the Jewish population in the US shrank from 5. This is indicative of the general population trends among the Jewish community in the Diaspora , but a focus on total population obscures growth trends in some denominations and communities, such as Haredi Judaism. The Baal teshuva movement is a movement of Jews who have "returned" to religion or become more observant. Christianity was originally a sect of Second Temple Judaism , but the two religions diverged in the first century.
The differences between Christianity and Judaism originally centered on whether Jesus was the Jewish Messiah but eventually became irreconcilable. Major differences between the two faiths include the nature of the Messiah, of atonement and sin , the status of God's commandments to Israel, and perhaps most significantly of the nature of God himself. Due to these differences, Judaism traditionally regards Christianity as Shituf or worship of the God of Israel which is not monotheistic.
Christianity has traditionally regarded Judaism as obsolete with the invention of Christianity and Jews as a people replaced by the Church, though a Christian belief in dual-covenant theology emerged as a phenomenon following Christian reflection on how their theology influenced the Nazi Holocaust. We decree that no Christian shall use violence to force them to be baptized, so long as they are unwilling and refuse. Until their emancipation in the late 18th and the 19th century, Jews in Christian lands were subject to humiliating legal restrictions and limitations.
They included provisions requiring Jews to wear specific and identifying clothing such as the Jewish hat and the yellow badge , restricting Jews to certain cities and towns or in certain parts of towns ghettos , and forbidding Jews to enter certain trades for example selling new clothes in medieval Sweden. Disabilities also included special taxes levied on Jews, exclusion from public life, restraints on the performance of religious ceremonies, and linguistic censorship. Some countries went even further and completely expelled Jews, for example, England in Jews were readmitted in and Spain in readmitted in The first Jewish settlers in North America arrived in the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam in ; they were forbidden to hold public office, open a retail shop, or establish a synagogue.
When the colony was seized by the British in Jewish rights remained unchanged, but by Asser Levy was the first Jew to serve on a jury in North America. Emancipation of the Jews in the United Kingdom was achieved in after an almost year struggle championed by Isaac Lyon Goldsmid  with the ability of Jews to sit in parliament with the passing of the Jews Relief Act The newly created German Empire in abolished Jewish disabilities in Germany, which were reinstated in the Nuremberg Laws in Jewish life in Christian lands was marked by frequent blood libels , expulsions, forced conversions and massacres.
Religious prejudice was an underlying source against Jews in Europe. Christian rhetoric and antipathy towards Jews developed in the early years of Christianity and was reinforced by ever increasing anti-Jewish measures over the ensuing centuries. The action taken by Christians against Jews included acts of violence, and murder culminating in the Holocaust. Pope John Paul II and the Catholic Church have "upheld the Church's acceptance of the continuing and permanent election of the Jewish people" as well as a reaffirmation of the covenant between God and the Jews. Both Judaism and Islam track their origins from the patriarch Abraham , and they are therefore considered Abrahamic religions.
In both Jewish and Muslim tradition, the Jewish and Arab peoples are descended from the two sons of Abraham— Isaac and Ishmael , respectively. While both religions are monotheistic and share many commonalities, they differ based on the fact that Jews do not consider Jesus or Muhammad to be prophets. The religions' adherents have interacted with each other since the 7th century when Islam originated and spread in the Arabian peninsula. Non-Muslim monotheists living in these countries, including Jews, were known as dhimmis. Dhimmis were allowed to practice their own religions and administer their own internal affairs, but they were subject to certain restrictions that were not imposed on Muslims.
For example, dhimmis in some countries were required to wear distinctive clothing , a practice not found in either the Qur'an or the hadiths but invented in early medieval Baghdad and inconsistently enforced. At times, Jews were also restricted in their choice of residence—in Morocco , for example, Jews were confined to walled quarters mellahs beginning in the 15th century and increasingly since the early 19th century. In the midth century, Jews were expelled from nearly all of the Arab countries.
Today, antisemitic themes including Holocaust denial have become commonplace in the propaganda of Islamic movements such as Hizbullah and Hamas , in the pronouncements of various agencies of the Islamic Republic of Iran , and even in the newspapers and other publications of Refah Partisi. There are some movements in other religions that include elements of Judaism. Among Christianity these are a number of denominations of ancient and contemporary Judaizers. The most well-known of these is Messianic Judaism , a religious movement, which arose in the s,     -In this, elements of the messianic traditions in Judaism,   are incorporated in, and melded with the tenets of Christianity.
Other examples of syncretism include Semitic neopaganism , a loosely organized sect which incorporates pagan or Wiccan beliefs with some Jewish religious practices; Jewish Buddhists , another loosely organized group that incorporates elements of Asian spirituality in their faith; and some Renewal Jews who borrow freely and openly from Buddhism , Sufism , Native American religions, and other faiths. The Kabbalah Centre , which employs teachers from multiple religions, is a New Age movement that claims to popularize the kabbalah , part of the Jewish esoteric tradition. See also Torah database for links to more Judaism e-texts. Text study projects at Wikisource. In many instances, the Hebrew versions of these projects are more fully developed than the English.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Abrahamic monotheistic ethnic religion of the Jewish people. This article is about the Jewish religion. For consideration of ethnic, historic and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity, see Jews. Judaica clockwise from top : Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup , Chumash and Tanakh , Torah pointer , shofar and etrog. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Important figures. Religious roles. Culture and education. Ritual objects. Major holidays. Other religions. Related topics. Further information: God in Judaism. Main article: Jewish principles of faith. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is One, and that there is no unity in any manner like His, and that He alone is our God, who was, and is, and will be.
I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, has no body, and that He is free from all the properties of matter, and that there can be no physical comparison to Him whatsoever. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is the first and the last. I believe with perfect faith that to the Creator, Blessed be His Name, and to Him alone, it is right to pray, and that it is not right to pray to any being besides Him. I believe with perfect faith that all the words of the prophets are true. I believe with perfect faith that the prophecy of Moses our teacher, peace be upon him , was true, and that he was the chief of the prophets, both those who preceded him and those who followed him.
I believe with perfect faith that the entire Torah that is now in our possession is the same that was given to Moses our teacher, peace be upon him. I believe with perfect faith that this Torah will not be exchanged and that there will never be any other Torah from the Creator, Blessed be His Name. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, knows all the deeds of human beings and all their thoughts, as it is written, "Who fashioned the hearts of them all, Who comprehends all their actions" Psalms I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, rewards those who keep His commandments and punishes those that transgress them.
I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah ; and even though he may tarry, nonetheless, I wait every day for his coming. I believe with perfect faith that there will be a revival of the dead at the time when it shall please the Creator, Blessed be His name, and His mention shall be exalted for ever and ever. Main article: Halakha. Main article: Jewish philosophy.
A law that clearly expresses the purpose it was meant to serve will also apply to other situations where the identical purpose may be served. When a general rule is followed by illustrative particulars, only those particulars are to be embraced by it. A law that begins with specifying particular cases, and then proceeds to an all-embracing generalization, is to be applied to particulars cases not specified but logically falling into the same generalization. A law that begins with a generalization as to its intended applications, then continues with the specification of particular cases, and then concludes with a restatement of the generalization, can be applied only to the particular cases specified. The rules about a generalization being followed or preceded by specifying particulars rules 4 and 5 will not apply if it is apparent that the specification of the particular cases or the statement of the generalization is meant purely for achieving a greater clarity of language.
A particular case already covered in a generalization that is nevertheless treated separately suggests that the same particularized treatment be applied to all other cases which are covered in that generalization. A penalty specified for a general category of wrongdoing is not to be automatically applied to a particular case that is withdrawn from the general rule to be specifically prohibited, but without any mention of the penalty.
A general prohibition followed by a specified penalty may be followed by a particular case, normally included in the generalization, with a modification in the penalty, either toward easing it or making it more severe. A case logically falling into a general law but treated separately remains outside the provisions of the general law except in those instances where it is specifically included in them. Obscurities in Biblical texts may be cleared up from the immediate context or from subsequently occurring passages Contradictions in Biblical passages may be removed through the mediation of other passages. Main article: Who is a Jew? Main article: Jewish population by country. Main article: Jewish religious movements.
See also: Sephardic law and customs. Main article: Religion in Israel. See also: Haymanot and Beta Israel. Further information: Noahidism. Main article: Jewish ethics. Main article: Jewish prayer. Further information: Jewish religious clothing , kippah , tzitzit , and tefillin. Main article: Jewish holiday. Main article: Shabbat. Main article: Shalosh regalim. Main article: High Holidays. Main article: Purim. Main article: Hanukkah. Main article: Torah reading. Main article: Synagogue. Main article: Kashrut. Main article: Tumah. Main article: Niddah. See also: Women in Judaism. Main article: Jewish history. This section is about the history of Judaism. For the book on Ancient Judaism, see Ancient Judaism book.
Main article: Origins of Judaism. Further information: Ancient Canaanite religion and Ancient Semitic religion. Main articles: Persecution of Jews , Antisemitism , and History of antisemitism. Main article: Hasidic Judaism. Main articles: Haskalah and Jewish religious movements. Main article: Christianity and Judaism. See also: Christianity and antisemitism and Christian—Jewish reconciliation.
Main article: Islam and Judaism. Main article: Criticism of Judaism. Judaism portal Religion portal. New York. Retrieved 26 July Berman Jewish DataBank. Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 19 November In Singer, Isidore ; et al. The Jewish Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 22 November World Jewish Population, Report. Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 21 October Daniel J. The Demographics of Jewish Religious Identification". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 20 September Pew Research Center.
Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 22 August Modern Judaism. ISSN JSTOR S2CID Can We Excommunicate God? The Eternal Dissident. Rabbi Leonard I. Beerman and the Radical Imperative to Think and Act 1 ed. University of California Press. ISBN JSTOR j. Retrieved 27 November Jewish Social Studies. Indiana University Press. Jewish Political Studies Review. ISSN X. History of Judaism. The Evolving World.
Harvard University Press. Markus Wiener Publishers. Zeitlin The Historical Muhammad. Medding, Values, interests and identity: Jews and politics in a changing world , Volume 11 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, Oxford University Press, , p. Berman Jewish Data Bank, Number 26, Retrieved 17 August Sheskin eds. Dordrecht: Springer, Jewish Virtual Library. Understanding Genesis. Schocken Books. The Blackwell companion to Judaism. No longer will you be called Abram; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations. I will make you very fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you. I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you.
The whole land of Canaan, where you are now an alien, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you; and I will be their God;" Gen. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring, all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me. New York: Bloch Publishing Company. For example: King Solomon's "wives turned away his heart after other gods…[and he] did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD" elaborated in 1 Melachim —10 ; King Ahab "went and served Baal, and worshiped him…And Ahab made the Asherah [a pagan place of worship]; and Ahab did yet more to provoke the LORD, the God of Israel, than all the kings of Israel that were before him" 1 Melachim —33 ; the prophet Isaiah condemns the people who "prepare a table for [the idol] Fortune, and that offer mingled wine in full measure unto [the idol] Destiny" Yeshaiahu — The Jewish roots of Christological monotheism: papers from the St.
Andrews conference on the historical origins of the worship of Jesus. Retrieved 19 November — via ResearchGate. My Jewish Learning. Normative Judaism? Jews, Judaism and Jewish Identity. Gorgias press. Alfacher, Rosh Amanah. However if he rejects one of these fundamentals he leaves the nation and is a denier of the fundamentals and is called a heretic, a denier, etc. Aish HaTorah. Eisenberg The JPS guide to Jewish traditions. Jewish Publication Society. The concept of "dogma" is…not a basic idea in Judaism. Mechon Mamre.
The closest that anyone has ever come to creating a widely accepted list of Jewish beliefs is Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith. Archived from the original on 18 September The word " emunah " has been translated incorrectly by the King James Bible as merely "belief" or "faith", when in actuality, it means conviction , which is a much more emphatic knowledge of God based on experience. San Translation available here .
Textual Analysis. Filozofia kultury. Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations in America. Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 5 June The AishDas Society. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. InterVarsity Press. A radical Jew: Paul and the politics of identity. Berkeley: University of California Press. LCCN Retrieved 15 June Paul was motivated by a Hellenistic desire for the One, which among other things produced an ideal of a universal human essence, beyond difference and hierarchy.
This universal humanity, however, was predicated and still is on the dualism of the flesh and the spirit, such that while the body is particular, marked through practice as Jew or Greek, and through anatomy as male or female, the spirit is universal. Paul did not, however, reject the body—as did, for instance, the gnostics—but rather promoted a system whereby the body had its place, albeit subordinated to the spirit.
Paul's anthropological dualism was matched by a hermeneutical dualism as well. Just as the human being is divided into a fleshy and a spiritual component, so also is language itself. It is composed of outer, material signs and inner, spiritual significations. When this is applied to the religious system that Paul inherited, the physical, fleshy signs of the Torah, of historical Judaism, are re-interpreted as symbols of that which Paul takes to be universal requirements and possibilities for humanity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension with one another.
What is a Jew? New York: Touchstone. ISBN X. What Makes Someone a Jew? Woodstock, Vermont: Jewish Lights Publishing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 22 October Contemporary American Reform Responsa. Retrieved 28 September Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 9 January Archived from the original on 24 December Birth, Death, and Femininity: Philosophies of Embodiment. A Modern Approach to a Living Halachah. Masorti World. Archived from the original on 13 July The Torah is an emanation of God…This conception does not mean, for us, that the process of revelation consisted of dictation by God. We therefore understand this term as a metaphor to mean that the Torah is divine and that it reflects God's will.
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