⒈ Perceived Social Support
Figure Perceived Social Support shows the marginal relationship between Perceived Social Support social support from family and friends Perceived Social Support Signature Theatre History odds Perceived Social Support reporting poor compliance Is Atticus A Hero Perceived Social Support. Studies have reported Perceived Social Support levels Perceived Social Support psychological distress Perceived Social Support girls than boys [ 23 interpersonal skills in nursing, 27 Perceived Social Support. Social support from these groups is very meaningful for Perceived Social Support, and it gives them a sense that Perceived Social Support is reliable and Perceived Social Support when they need Perceived Social Support [ 1317 Perceived Social Support. United States: Guilford press; Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Social Support \u0026 Wellness - Chandra Story - TEDxOStateU
Since all of the indexes in our model met the recommended criteria, we did not need to delete any item. Additionally, for practical significance, a factor loading of either 0. Tabachnick and Fidell [ 53 ] following the recommendations of Comrey and Lee [ 54 ] also described that a factor loading of 0. Regarding the reliability analysis, our statistical results supported that every construct in the scale being reliable.
This was similar to results of a study of Chinese parents of children with cerebral palsy [ 21 ] and supported all three of the subscales achieving very good reliability values. Hair and Black [ 47 ] described how good CR values indicate that the items are reliable and have high correlations within the same construct. Our findings supported that the scale and its three subscales had excellent internal consistency reliability overall and across gender subgroups. The CR is considered to produce a better estimate of true reliability than CA [ 55 ].
Although both of them indicated the consistency of the item measured the proposed construct, we employed both CA and the CR because CA assumes unidimensionality and indicates that the items are equally related to the construct factor loadings are the same for all items. However, the CR does not assume this because it takes into consideration the factor loadings of every item. The structural equation modeling approach that we used in this study was empirically assessed, and it overcame some of the limiting assumptions of CA [ 56 ].
Although our present findings supported the original version of the scale, there were still some limitations that should be noted. First, we invited participation of Indonesian junior and senior high school students who had previously experienced a traumatic event; therefore, we might not be able to generalize whether the same factor structure and findings would be obtained in other adolescent populations, such as in normative or clinical settings.
However, our findings contribute to understanding how social support might work and operate among individuals from different cultural backgrounds. Second, we used a cross-sectional research design; therefore, we were unable to confirm if the results would be consistent in different time periods. For example, our study employed measurement invariance through a multiple-group CFA which was one component used to determine the score validity evidence and evaluate the construct-irrelevant variance [ 37 ]. Building evidence to confirm the theoretical constructs and measurement invariance is important in establishing valid comparisons of MSPSS item responses and its subscales across specific groups [ 26 ]. In summary, the present study demonstrated that the Indonesian version of the MSPSS has unique psychometric characteristics, and the original version with a three-factor structure is applicable to Indonesian adolescent disaster survivors.
Measuring social support in a specific population may have different expectations, because the nature of social networks and cultural backgrounds also differ [ 57 ]. The availability of the Indonesian version of the MSPSS will be very useful in helping academicians and researchers select an ideal social support scale. We conclude by noting that our findings provide strong support for the use of the MSPSS as a multidimensional-construct instrument.
We suggest that future investigations using this scale should be conducted to complete the characteristics and add to the variability of analyzing the scale. The authors would like to thank the study participants and school teachers for their cooperation in this study. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Methods A school-based assessment was conducted in junior and senior high schools in a post-disaster setting in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia.
Results The factorial validity confirmed the three-factor structure of the scale Family, Friends, and Significant Others which met all of the criteria of parameter indices and provided evidence of high internal consistency reliability. Conclusions The Indonesian version of the MSPSS was shown to be a valid, reliable, theoretically constructed, and applicable instrument for adolescent disaster survivors. Funding: The author s received no specific funding for this work. Introduction Disasters have been reported to have long-term impacts on vulnerable groups, such as children and adolescents [ 1 — 3 ], and they deserve our attention. Materials and methods Study design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study design was applied in this study, and a stratified sampling method were used to select participants.
Instrument Permission to use the MSPSS and its Indonesian version was granted by the original author [ 13 ] and translator [ 30 , 31 ]. Results Participant characteristics In total, questionnaires were distributed, and Download: PPT. Confirmatory factor analysis CFA Results of the CFA indicated that the hypothesized three-factor structure demonstrated a very good fit to the data, because all of the parameters corresponded to the recommended criteria very well. Fig 1. Measurement invariance Configural invariance. Table 2. Fit indices for measurement invariances across genders.
Metric invariance. Scalar invariance. Table 3. Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support item distributions and their characteristics. Discussion The present study is the first to investigate the psychometric properties of the MSPSS in adolescent survivors of a disaster in Indonesia. Conclusions In summary, the present study demonstrated that the Indonesian version of the MSPSS has unique psychometric characteristics, and the original version with a three-factor structure is applicable to Indonesian adolescent disaster survivors. Supporting information.
S1 Dataset. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the study participants and school teachers for their cooperation in this study. References 1. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children following natural disasters: A systematic review of the long-term follow-up studies. View Article Google Scholar 2. Risk factors for long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence: Predictors of post traumatic stress disorder.
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Despite such mitigation measures and strong recommendations urging people to stay at home as much as possible, some people did not practice social distancing and left their houses for inessential activities. Hence, COVID quickly spread throughout the entire country despite all national containment efforts. Little is known regarding the factors affecting compliance with health care advice during pandemics.
Considering the growing body of literature highlighting the role of social support for health behavior change [ 6 , 7 ], the current study aimed to assess associations between perceived social support and the level of compliance with stay-at-home advisories during the Nowruz holiday among residents of Mashhad, Iran. Social support is generally described as the availability of reliable people, who let us know that they care about, value, and love us [ 8 ]. Social support includes support perceptions perceived support and supportive behaviors received support , which can promote overall well-being as well as increasing personal resistance to health problems [ 9 ]. Perceived social support is the personal subjective appraisal of the availability and adequacy of resources and reactions provided by their social networks.
Received social support refers to objective appraisals of personal social connections and their consequent functions [ 10 ]. Social support may come from different sources, e. Social networks affect health behaviors by several mechanisms. Social contacts provide information on resources and products, which can be used to change a usual behavior. Furthermore, social networks provide social capital or how-to information, which can be used to carry out jobs [ 10 ]. Literatures are now available, describing roles of perceived social support in affecting positive psychological outcomes such as self-efficacy, self-esteem and resilience.
However, these may contribute to promote health behaviors [ 6 ]. In recent years, investigations on social support as a factor linked to treatment adherence have increased. Good examples of this increase included investigations on patients with obesity [ 12 ], hypertension [ 10 ], type-2 diabetes [ 12 ] and HIV [ 13 ]. However, findings are sometimes controversial [ 6 ]. Social support can greatly contribute to physical and mental health. Researchers have found that supportive family environments were linked to various preventive health practices by elderly people. Umberson showed that support could promote preventive health behaviors via direct and indirect social controls and suggested that health is a normative circumstance and behaviors that contributed to morbidity and mortality are deviant behaviors.
Therefore, direct social control might occur via external bans on unconventional or deviant behaviors [ 14 ]. A number of studies have been carried out on the association of social support with stress and coping during outbreaks such as influenza [ 15 ], Ebola [ 16 ], SARS [ 17 ], and COVID [ 18 , 19 ]. However, there is little or no published research on the role of social support in promoting public compliance with social distancing orders as the most effective way of limiting spread of communicable viruses.
Therefore, the aim of the current study was to answer the following research questions. A random systematic sampling was carried out to select participants for phone interviews. A total of calls were made, of which failed busy, no answer, on fax or line block. Unavailable phone numbers after five attempts were removed from the list. A total of individuals answered the phone calls. Hence, adults participated in this study. A supervisor monitored data collection. The interviewers were informed that interviews would be monitored, yet they did not know when these observations occurred.
Interviewers made the phone calls at various times of the day. At the beginning of each interview, major objectives of the study were briefly explained to the participant to receive their verbal participation consent. Income, education level and social class subjective of the participants were considered as socioeconomic factors. Social surveys in Iranian society include a number of challenges when aiming at a reliable estimate of income or wealth since most people are not willing to share their income information. Thus, asking for income disclosure results in high proportions of missing values [ 20 ].
Another proxy for socioeconomic status was education. In this study, education was assessed using the highest educational degree received by the participants based on the International Standard Classification of Education ISCED Social class was another socioeconomic indicator. This was rated 1 upper class to 5 lower class. Responses of lower class, working class and lower middle class were recoded as low and upper middle class and responses of upper class were recoded as high class.
Several instruments are available to assess social support. The MSPSS is a item scale that assesses perceived support from three sources of family, friends and a significant other person e. This instrument is brief, easy to administer, and has been found to be reliable and valid in various populations and languages. Answers were provided based on a 3-point scale with answer options of never or once, two or three times and more than three times. Descriptive statistics for categorical variables were described using frequencies and percentages. Continuous variables were summarized as means and standard deviations SDs.
Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess effects of demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors and social support on compliance with self-isolation. Overall, two models were built according to the research questions. The first model included demographic and socioeconomic factors. Model 2 was built on model 1 by adding perceived social support variables to estimate the effect of perceived social support from different sources on compliance with self-isolation.
Odds ratios ORs and their confidence intervals are reported. The significance level was set at 0. Statistical analysis was carried out using Stata Descriptive statistics for all study variables are summarized in Table 1. Four of five participants reported that they completely , Overall, Significant differences were seen in sociodemographic characteristics between the participants with good and those with poor compliance. However, no significant differences were observed in marital status and levels of income between the two groups. Model 2 suggested that when controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors, perceived social support from the family was associated with an Interestingly, perceived social support from friends was associated with a Participants, who perceived more support from a significant other, were less likely to report poor compliance with self-isolation; however, the result was not statistically significant at 0.
Figure 1 shows the marginal relationship between perceived social support from family and friends and the odds of reporting poor compliance with self-isolation. Marginal plots of the effect of perceived social support from family and friends on the poor compliance with stay at home orders. The pandemic occurred during Nowruz the Persian New Year holidays, starting from March 19, , and extending for 2 weeks. Nowruz is traditionally time to leave homes for shopping, traveling, and visiting relatives.
The lack of vaccines or effective treatments for COVID have significantly challenged control of the disease spread. Recent evidence suggests that these types of diseases can include serious social, psychological, and economic consequences. In large metropolises such as Mashhad, the importance of limiting outbreaks before their widespread transmissions is a high priority for public health policy makers and planners. Results have shown that most of the people have adopted self-isolation during recent Nowruz in Mashhad.
However, nearly one-fifth of the participants had poor compliance with stay at home orders. However, those with lower subjective social class showed higher odds of non-compliance to social-isolation. People have been asked to practice social distancing as well as economic distancing. Due to numerous economic problems in Iran, general quarantine and strict social distancing include economic hardship for poor people such as those relying on informal labors with no possibilities of social distancing practices [ 2 , 4 ]. In the present study, the major explanatory factor included perceived social support. The literature suggest positive effects of supportive relationships with other people on promotion of healthy behaviors, as health promotion programs often use social support to change or maintain certain behaviors [ 6 , 10 , 17 , 18 , 28 ].
Interestingly, social support was found to be both a fostering and hindering factor dependent on the source of support. Participants who perceived more support from their family members were more likely to comply with stay-at-home advices. In contrast, those who perceived more support from friends were more likely to be noncompliant. It appears that close family members may have helped to reinforce the social distancing directive and promoted adherence. Conversely, individuals who rely strongly on the support of friends may have felt greater pressure to leave their homes to socialize, a pressure that may have been amplified as a social norm by some friendship groups. Studies have shown that different sources of support may have differential effects on health behaviors and outcomes.
Researchers have reported that social support from family members is strongly associated with health-related behaviors. However, in some instances, social support could have negative consequences. For example, friends and family, through normative influences, may promote unhealthy behaviors and discourage healthy lifestyles [ 28 , 29 , 30 ]. A large and growing body of research has indicated that the family, as a supportive network, plays a significant role in shaping health behaviors [ 31 ].
Family is one of the key factors that shapes and affects personal health attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. Family members may model positive health care behaviors or serve as sources of support in crises such as quitting alcohol and caffeine during pregnancy, quitting smoking, and adopting preventive measures [ 32 ]. The mechanisms; through which, various aspects of the family relationships e. Social control theory hypothesizes that family relationships affect health behaviors through indirect and direct control mechanisms.
Indirect social control acts through the self-enforcement of norms. Individuals with positive family ties feel a greater sense of responsibility for themselves. Furthermore, families who motivate individuals to practice improve their health behaviors [ 33 ]. Support from and accountability to family may directly facilitate changes in behaviors through physical interventions e. Although the majority of the literature consistently suggests the positive influence of social support from family on health behavior, the literature on the link with friend and peer support is mixed. A number of researchers have reported that social support provided by network members may also have potential adverse effects on health behaviors [ 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 ].
Relationships with risk-taking friends and peers can lead to negative health behaviors like alcohol and drug use [ 30 , 31 , 39 ], risky sexual behaviors [ 37 ], unhealthy eating behaviors [ 40 ], and suicidal behavior [ 36 ]. Accordingly, unintended negative consequences of social support from friends and peers may be due to group conformity, where individuals feel pressured to adapt their behavioral norms to match those of their social network [ 30 , 38 , 41 ]. Furthermore, previous research suggests that the effects of social support from friends may be different by the nature of the crisis and the timing of the social support [ 35 ], thus further in-depth research is needed to explain the mechanisms by which social support from friends in COVID context can hinder compliance with stay at home directives.
The possibility of reverse causation also requires further study. A limitation in this study was the use of a single-question to identify levels of compliance with stay-at-home directives during the COVID outbreak. This self-report measure was used due to the lack of validated measures of voluntary social isolation [ 26 ]. However, as mentioned in the method section, participants were also asked how many times they leaved home for different purposes during the last week.
Despite these limitations, this study provides valuable insights into some key factors influencing compliance with social distancing orders during the COVID pandemic, for families, policymakers and health service managers. In addition, it would be valuable to assess social support and compliance with social distancing orders in other countries to evaluate whether the association reported here are found in other countries and cultures.
In the original publication, the pharse "the third world" from the sentence "for the third world countries such as Iran, The article has been updated and the phrase has been deleted. Lancet London, England. Habibzadeh F, Lang T. The coronavirus pandemic:" the show must not go on". Int J Occup Environ Med. Social support and preventive healthcare behaviors among couples in later life. The Gerontologist. PubMed Article Google Scholar.
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