➊ Learning Theories In Nursing Education
During the preparation, I was so overwhelmed by the reactions of different sectors in our community. Interpretation Learning Theories In Nursing Education include determining the significance of laboratory values, Learning Theories In Nursing Education signs, and physical assessment data Analysis Of The Lewis And Clark Expedition well as understanding the meaning of a patient's behavior or statements. They are a necessity for the Learning Theories In Nursing Education of safe, high-quality clinical care. Skip to main Learning Theories In Nursing Education. For that reason, they will not be Learning Theories In Nursing Education to value nor practice such viewpoint to the fullest extent possible. This can be done Learning Theories In Nursing Education a formal setting in Learning Theories In Nursing Education education, My Reflection As A Physical Therapy Assistant school, or apprenticeship. To be able Learning Theories In Nursing Education have a successful outcome, it is a must Learning Theories In Nursing Education establish a trusting relationship in which good communication is the key ingredient.
Use a Learning Theory: Cognitivism
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Today we stand in our realm with a crown on our head, cherishing every accomplishment with a pride and with humility for we owe it to our patients. Post a Comment. N AY - Donnabelle Allauigan and Ericka Sarmiento. In an ever-changing world, society tends to become increasingly diverse, in terms of behaviors, values beliefs and norms. With constant internal and environmental stimuli, such behaviors, values, beliefs and norms develop overtime which creates a mark in the mind of every individual, and is observed through social practices, religious structures and artistic expression. The end result of such change is what we recognize now as culture. Within the context of nursing practice, cultural backgrounds can influence views on health and well-being and illness, which in turn might have an effect on their perceptions on healthcare and healthcare outcomes.
Due to the recurrent concerns regarding the challenges encountered in the care for culturally diverse patients, transcultural care has become an important aspect of health care. Nowadays the goal of the medical system is to provide optimal and holistic care for all patients, to be culturally competent is an ingredient in order to accomplish quality care and health outcomes. The need for clinicians to become more sensitive to cultural differences and gain an understanding of transcultural concepts has been repeatedly stressed by Leininger and is the aim of this piece of writing. Our group hails from diverse locations and is working in different parts of not only the Philippines, but also of the world. With different upbringings and different customs that we grew up with and encounter on a daily basis as nurses, we chose Madeleine Leininger, who was a pioneer in her time, as our nursing theorist.
Culture Care or Transcultural Nursing deals with nursing and the culture of the clients. And as we are nurses who are working in various nursing fields, in different locations, the group saw how it can be adapted to our profession. Seeking further knowledge on it and how it applies to our specialization, will enhance each individual further as efficient nurses. The concept is also applicable not only to our work but also to us, students of Masters of Arts in Nursing, because we are currently adapting to a new culture with a different study environment, having interactions with people in various locations by various forms of media.
This concept would not only be applied in the work setting but also in our education. With this, our group encourages you to read through our study and we hope that you will be able to understand and appreciate its contents. We feel confident that after going through our output, you will come to conclude that nursing transcends all cultures, providing care for every race and nation. Leininger has been in demand for over 35 years as a consultant and speaker on issues relate to transcultural nursing and human caring in education and research, and continues such engagements to the present. In time line presentation. Her desire to pursue a career in nursing was due to her inspiration and experience with her aunt who suffered from congenital heart disease. Leininger is a nationally and internationally known educator, author, theorist, administrator, researcher, consultant, and public speaker.
She has been a distinguished visiting professor and scholar at approximately 70 universities in the United States, Canada, and overseas. As of , she has written 25 books, published over articles and book chapters, produced numerous audio and video recordings, and developed a software program. She has also given over keynote and public lectures in US and around the world. Her areas of expertise are transcultural nursing, comparative human care, qualitative research methods, cultural care theory, culture of nursing and health fields, anthropology, and the future of nursing. The post depression Period, Madeleine and her sister entered the Cadet Nurse Corps a federally-funded program to increase the numbers of nurses being trained to meet anticipated needs during World War II and a diploma program at St.
They were the only persons entering the nursing profession within several nearby counties. Scholastica College in Atchison, Kasas. Leininger opened a psychiatric nursing service and educational program at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. She identified a lack of cultural and care knowledge as the missing link to nursing understands of the many variations required in patient care to support compliance, healing, and wellness George, There she began the first graduate program in psychiatric nursing at the University , as well as the first clinical specialist program in child psychiatric nursing in the country. During this time she also co-authored one of the first psychiatric nursing texts, Basic Psychiatric Nursing Concepts , which has been published in eleven languages and used worldwide.
She pursued doctoral studies beginning in ; during this time she was awarded a National League of Nursing Fellowship for fieldwork in the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea, where she studied the convergence and divergence of human behavior in two Gadsup villages. Leininger was the first in the s to coin the concept "culturally congruent care" which was the goal of the Theory of Culture Care, and today the concept is being used globally.
Leininger embarked upon a doctoral program in Cultural and Social Anthropology at the University of Washington in Seattle and became the first professional nurse to earn a Ph. Leininger was appointed Professor of Nursing and Anthropology at the University of Colorado— the first joint appointment of a professor of nursing and a second discipline in the United States. Washington, School of Nursing. June 1, Leininger retired as professor emeritus from Wayne State University. At present. Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing;. University of Indianapolis DS, ,. Donnabelle Allauigan.
By Farrah Sayo. Preparation in philosophy, religion, education, nursing, anthropology, biological sciences, and related areas influenced her holistic and comprehensive view of humans. And as the first graduate professional nurse to pursue a PhD in anthropology with the desire to advance nursing theory, she saw great potential for developing relationships between nursing and anthropology and expanding the prevalent mind-body medical and nursing views. Comparative care meanings, expressions, symbols, and practices of different cultures were powerful new ways to practice nursing. Theorizing about the culture and care relationships as a new discipline focus was intellectually exciting to her. Interestingly, anthropologists had not studied care in health and illness when she began the theory in the s.
In developing the theory, a major hurdle for nurses was to discover culture care meanings, practices, and factors influencing care by religion, politics, economics, worldview, environment, cultural values, history, language, gender, and others. Hence, the sunrise model was developed. If nurses use the model with the theory, they will discover factors related to cultural stresses, pain, racial biases, and even destructive acts as nontherapeutic to clients. One can also reduce and prevent violence in the workplace, anger, and noncompliance with data findings from the model when used with the three prescribed modes of action: a. Cultural preservation or maintenance b. Cultural care accommodation or negotiation c.
Cultural care repatterning or restructuring. And because nurses are the largest group of health care providers, a significant difference in quality care and preventing legal suits can occur. The sunrise model used in conjunction with the theory is a powerful means for new knowledge and practices in health care contexts. Gayzell A. Madeleine Leininger was especially candid when asked about her influences in formulating the Culture Care Theory. She said that there was no one person or philosophic school of thought or ideology per se that directly influenced her thinking.
Leininger used creative thinking and her experiences as a nurse-anthropologist in working on the interrealationships between culture and care. Her philosophical interest and conceptual orientation of the Culture Care Theory were derived primarily from holistic nursing and anthropological perspective of human beings living in different places and circumstances.
She formulated a derived theory from the discipline of anthropology and conceptualized it in a new and unique way relevant to nursing. It is comprehensive and holistic because it takes into account social structure, world view, values, environment, language expressions, and folk-professional systems to discover nursing knowledge. Enrique Luis Nuguid. Leininger said that Illness and wellness are shaped by a various factors including perception and coping skills, as well as the social level of the patient. She also stressed that cultural competence is an important component of nursing and that religious and cultural knowledge is an important ingredient in health care.
She stressed that value of culture is influential in all spheres of human life. It also defines health, illness, and the search for relief from disease or distress. Health concepts held by many cultural groups may result in people choosing not to seek modern medical treatment procedures and that health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that they likely to be encountered. Most cases of illness have multiple causalities and may require several different approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and cure including folk and western medical interventions.
According to her studies, the use of traditional or alternate models of health care delivery is widely varied and may come into conflict with western models of health care practice that is why being a-depth with different cultures guide the behavior into acceptable ways for the people in a specific group since culture originates and develops within the social structure through inter personal interactions.
Effective intercultural communication must take place so that nurse can successfully provide care for a client of a different cultural or ethnic to background. The practice of transcultural nursing addresses the cultural dynamics that influence the nurse client relationship. Because of its focus on this specific aspect of nursing, a theory was needed to study and explain outcomes of this type of care. Leininger creatively developed the Theory of Culture Care: Diversity and Universality with the goal to provide culturally congruent wholistic care. Some scholars might place this theory in the middle range classification. Leininger holds that it is not a grand theory because it has particular dimensions to assess for a total picture.
It is a wholistic and comprehensive approach, which has led to broader nursing practice applications than is traditionally expected with a middle-range, reductionist approach. Personal communication with Penny Glynn on September 12, Culturally congruent care is possible when the following occurs within the nurse-client relationship Leininger, : Together the nurse and the client creatively design a new or different care lifestyle for the health or well-being of the client. This mode requires the use of both generic and professional knowledge and ways to fit such diverse ideas into nursing care actions and goals. Care knowledge and skill are often repatterned for the best interest of the clients…Thus all care modalities require coparticipation of the nurse and clients consumers working together to identify, plan, implement, and evaluate each caring mode for culturally congruent nursing care.
These modes can stimulate nurses to design nursing actions and decisions using new knowlwdge and culturally based ways to provide meaningful and satisfying holistic care to individuals, groups or institutions. Under Leninger's theory, ethnohistory refers to "to the past events and experiences of individuals or groups, which explain human lifeways within particular cultural contexts over short or long periods. Other Concepts. Her theory would be especially important in situations in which a nurse may be enlisted in the Army or a member of the Peace Corps, where there will be cultural as well as religious divides, and it would be of the utmost importance for the nurse to be able to address the differences provide care accordingly.
Flor Kenneth Alobin. Madeleine Leininger focused on care as an integral aspect of nursing. Unlike other nursing theorists, she did not emphasized on basic concepts of person, nursing, health and environment. Instead, she formulated the following descriptions of these:. PERSON : refers to an individual human caring and cultural being as well as a family, group, a social institution, or a culture.
Human beings are best explained in her assumptions. Humans are thus believed to be caring and capable of being concerned about the desires, welfares, and continued existence of others. Human care is collective, that is, seen in all cultures. Humans have endured within cultures and through place and time because they have been able to care for infants, children, and the elderly in a variety of ways and in many different environments. Thus, humans are universally- caring beings who survive in a diversity of cultures through their ability to provide the universality of care in a variety of ways according to differing cultures, needs, and settings. HEALTH : encompasses a broad spectrum of conditions, including well-being, illness, disability, and handicap.
Madeleine Leininger discussed about components of health, specifically:. Health is a key concept in transcultural nursing. Because of the weight on the need for nurses to have knowledge that is specific to the culture in which nursing is being practiced, it is acknowledged that health is seen as being universal across cultures but distinct within each culture in a way that represents the beliefs, values, and practices of the particular culture. Thus, health is both universal and diverse. It is a learned humanistic and scientific profession and discipline that focuses on phenomena and activities of human care in order to assist, support, facilitate, or enable individuals or groups to maintain or regain their well-being or health in culturally meaningful and beneficial ways, or to help people face handicaps or death.
Instead, care has the greatest epistemic and onto logic explanatory power to explain nursing. Leininger showed her concern to nurses who do not have sufficient preparation for a transcultural perspective. For that reason, they will not be able to value nor practice such viewpoint to the fullest extent possible. She gave three types of nursing actions that are culturally-based and thus consistent with the needs and values of the clients.
These are:. Fatima Angelica Herrera. Culture care theory, a great breakthrough in caring for the culturally different, has major, unique, and contributing features that can be listed at the onset before presenting the theory itself. These are the following:. The theory which was launched in the mids remains one of the oldest theories in the field of nursing. It is the only theory that focused unambiguously on the close interrelationships of culture and care on a person's well-being, health, illness, and death. Culture Care theory is the only theory that focused on comparative culture care. Being the most holistic and multidimensional theory, it discovered specific and multifaceted culturally based care meanings and practices.
With a method called ethnonursing, it is the first nursing theory with a distinctively designed research method to fit the theory. In order to deliver culturally congruent care, the theory has both abstract and practical features in addition to three action modes. It is the first nursing theory that focused on generic emic and professional etic culture care, social structure factors, worldview-related data, and ethnohistory in various environmental contexts. To discover and elucidate diverse and universal culturally based care factors that influence an individual's or group's health, well-being, illness, or death is the principal purpose of the theory. Its goal is to use research findings to provide culturally congruent, competent, safe, and meaningful care to clients of different or similar cultures.
The three modes for congruent care, decisions, and actions proposed in the theory are expected to lead to wellness, prevent illness or to face death. Hence, the Sunrise Model was created Leininger, To use research findings to provide culturally congruent, safe, and meaningful care to clients of diverse or similar cultures. Literature of the Sunrise Model, Explained excerpt from Parker, The Sunrise Model Figure 1 was developed to give a holistic and comprehensive conceptual picture of the major factors held as important to the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality Leininger, , a. The model is a conceptual visual guide depicting multiple factors predicted to influence culturally congruent care with people of different cultures. The model essentially serves as a cognitive guide for the researcher to visualize and reflect on different factors predicted to influence culturally based care in the discovery process.
The factors tend to be embedded in social structure, worldview, and other dimensions identified in the Sunrise Model and are usually not quickly identifiable. Hence, they are not isolated variables but are lodged in their natural and meaningful cultural context, yet are important discovery areas within the theory. All factors in the model need to be studied to obtain comprehensive or holistic data in order to arrive at an accurate picture of culturally based care. Some researchers may want to start with generic and professional care, whereas others may begin with the worldview and social structure dimensions.
Because three modes of action and decision in the lower part of the model are studied and formulated with informants after the researcher has obtained data in the upper part of the model, the nursing actions or decisions become evident. The researcher involves informants in the discussion to arrive at appropriate actions, decisions, or plans. Transcultural nurses are taught, guided, and mentored in ways to withhold and deal with their biases and prejudices through formal courses and clinical experiences in transcultural nursing. Amor Auro-Llenas. Leininger develop new terms and definition which are important and to facilitate easier understanding although such key terms are crucial to understanding but are essential to understanding Leininger's Theory.
Edcel Lyra M. The assumptive premises serve as the philosophical basis which supports the Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory. These assumptions gave meaning, clarity, and an in-depth understanding to the focus of the theory which will help us to achieve a culturally congruent and competent nursing care. Nurses are now gradually realizing the importance of cultural nursing and the need to understand cultures, especially Filipino nurses who are working overseas. Nursing is in a new phase of health emphasis where there is an increased display of cultural identity, accompanied by increased demands for culture specific care and general health services. The relationship between nursing and culture gained recognition by being added to the Nursing curriculum in the mids but there were very few nurse educators adequately prepared and qualified to teach courses on culture and nursing.
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