➊ The Double Truth: The Shingon School

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The Double Truth: The Shingon School

The Double Truth: The Shingon School, The South Dbq point of departure for the analysis is not a separation between knower and known. Caster The Double Truth: The Shingon School originally summoned by a The Double Truth: The Shingon School from the Mage's Association before the start of the Holy Grail War. Mind Summary Of Lermontovs The Demon Passionlip fight does give you a buff in the form of a regeneration-per-turn effect, but Passionlip will hit hard enough to offset The Double Truth: The Shingon School and has class advantage over all The Double Truth: The Shingon School casters. However, critically appraise definition Crimson Dragon Sojourner Truths Speech At Akron once again to take everyone to Rex Goodwin's mansion. The The Double Truth: The Shingon School for this journey is to follow in the footsteps of the Prophet Muhammad, hoping to gain enlightenment as Muhammad did The Double Truth: The Shingon School he was in the presence of Allah. Dark Marie is an aged up version of Marie Antoinette wearing The Double Truth: The Shingon School skimpier dress with a Cleavage Window that shows off her The Double Truth: The Shingon School large bust.

Shômyô - Buddhist liturgical chants, Shingon sect (Japan)

She was the princess of Colchis who possessed the Golden Fleece. Her personality at the time was far from what would be called a witch, and her fate became confounded after the hero famous from the Argo Expedition, Jason , appeared before her. Jason argued with King Pelias , the usurper of his father's country Iolcos , and eventually made him promise to return the country upon traveling far east to Colchis and returning with the Golden Fleece. He was supported by the Goddess Aphrodite , and upon realizing that the King of Colchis was unshakable, she decided to control Medea's mind to help Jason. Medea was made to blindly love Jason, which resulted in her betraying her father and her country for a foreigner she had never seen.

Her abilities allowed her to nullify her father's magic and the enchanted fire-breathing oxen, which gave Jason the chance to obtain the Golden Fleece. King Aeetes was infuriated, and decided to personally lead his army to capture Jason before he left the country. Aphrodite once again used Medea to assist Jason's escape by forcing her to kill her own brother, Apsyrtus. While she only knew Jason by name, her forced love caused her to board his ship, the Argo , and slice her brother into pieces right before the eyes of her pursing father. The King, overcome by grief, ordered for the collection of the pieces of his dead son, which allowed for the opportunity for the Argo to escape its pursuers.

Upon returning to the safety of his native land, Jason asked for the return of his country as promised, but King Pelias refused. He formed a plot to kill Jason, and Jason was forced to rely on Medea's magic three times to escape from the danger. She eventually came up with a plan for Jason, where they invited Pelias to visit and displayed her magic. They killed his servant in front of him and revived him with her magic to display a spell of immortality. She offered to cast the same spell on the King, who was overjoyed at the prospect. He willingly gave his body to her, which was left in pieces and thrown in the sea.

Jason became the king afterward, but his fellow Argonauts did not approve of his conduct, and most of all, they disapproved of Medea's very existence. They denounced her as a witch who betrayed her country for a man, killed her brother to save herself, and now had taken the throne by deceit. They were both chased out of the country, and fled to Corinth where they were welcomed by the king. She finally found a peaceful rest in this land after her abduction and denouncement, but it did not last long. The King of Corinth took a liking to Jason, and decided to have his daughter marry him. Jason also decided to choose the young daughter over Medea, which led to her exile. Her actions afterward were those that have truly marked her as a witch.

She appeared at Jason's wedding, and burned all who attended with her magic. Everyone except for Jason was killed, including the King of Corinth and his daughter, and Medea's fate after she left Corinth is unknown. As her life was filled only with betrayal, it is said that the princess became a true witch and continued to roam the Greek lands. Caster's appearance is much like a witch that would be seen in a fairy tale.

Her face is only shown briefly after being slain by Archer during Unlimited Blade Works , she is noted to be an incredibly beautiful woman. The outfit consists of a black top with a jean jacket and long tan skirt. She still dons her robe if she has to enter into battle. Cruel and cold-hearted, she is a genuine wicked woman who does not choose the means to achieve her objectives and makes evil designs her forte. However, such personality was established as a reaction of the fate imposed on her. A tragical woman who, a result of constantly facing betrayal, ended up falling on the standpoint of betraying people herself.

As she began to betray her original Master, Atrum Galliasta , Caster was shown to possess a surprising amount of morality as she freed the children that Atram had planned to sacrifice, before completely destroying his workshop. She would disappear unable to do anything as a pitiful Servant summoned only to be trampled upon. While such a situation was vexing, it was not out of the ordinary for her. It had always been that way for her, as she has always been used as a tool by others. She had always been treated unreasonably, and she was never once understood by anyone. Her life was always controlled by someone else, and her mind was destroyed at a young age to save a hero chosen by the gods. She was cursed to blindly love a man she had never seen just because he was favored by the goddess of beauty, which led to her being forced to betray her own father and country.

She was originally an innocent person, but after suffering from repeated betrayal, she thought "Hmmm, fine, I might as well sink to rock bottom". Because of this, she was tainted by evil. She has no true memory after that point. She was brought to an unfamiliar country after betraying her father for a man, and made into a witch that cut apart her own brother and threw the pieces into the sea to escape her native country. After all that happened, even the man who had wanted it done cast her aside in order to become king after saying he could not marry a witch.

Her origin is that she was controlled and taken to an unknown country, marked as a witch, and thrown away by the only person on which she could rely. There is nothing people can blame her for, and while the people around her were aware of that fact, they still demanded for her to be a witch. People wanted a convenient scapegoat that they could blame for any disaster, whether it is an evil to protect the king or an evil to be on the end of evil superstitions.

She was part of an unchanging pattern where people demand easily understandable evil to reassure themselves of the own goodness. She was considered the perfect sacrifice in that regard with the only person she could rely on, her father, in a distant country. Nobody defended her, and they gladly blamed her for all the ugly things in the world. They decided every ugliness was the witch's doing, from being poor, to hating others, the fact that humans are ugly, or even that people die. She merely accepted that fact, and she decided because she can only live as a witch, that she would act as a witch. She imposed such a reason of existence on herself as it is the only role people gave to the girl called a witch who never had a free will.

She swore to show them the ugliness of their wishes that they demanded of her. If they do not know their own ugliness, they can stay ignorant, go to hell for their own crimes, and suffer forever. They won't be able to get out of hell, where they will suffer forever as criminals because they do not know what crimes they have committed. Nobody actually wished for such a thing, and neither did she wish for it. She seeks revenge against her will, without having any wish for herself. Her entire outlook changed upon meeting Kuzuki. Her main talents lie in plotting and crafting plans. She likes reticent men of sincerity and girls in adorable clothes, and she dislikes muscles. She's merciless against mature women.

She doesn't like to be called a "witch", and while she will forgive someone once, she will prepare an appropriate punishment for those who call her a "witch" twice. In the manga adaptation, it is revealed that, Caster has gone psychologically insane at one point in her life, and she did so again following Kuzuki's death. She enjoys playing cooking lessons simulations on the NDS. Caster was originally summoned by a magus from the Mage's Association before the start of the Holy Grail War. He was a legitimate magus who was in his thirties with a medium build and few other noteworthy characteristics.

He had no drive for combat, but still dreamed of victory while waiting for the other Masters to kill each other. She quickly gave up on him within a few days while planning to sever her connection to him. She made him use his Command Spells on meaningless things, so that he would have no control over her. She acted as an obedient Servant and filled the man's conceit in order to make him believe that she would still be faithful without them, and upon using his third Command Spell, she killed him with Rule Breaker because she did not like the fact that the contract still existed.

On the verge of her spiritual body dissipating, she stumbled upon Souichirou Kuzuki at the foot of the Ryuudou Temple. Caster begged this stranger for his help; Kuzuki obliged without hesitation, forming a new contract with her. Caster quickly fell in love with Kuzuki, for he was the first man to show her genuine kindness, dedication and loyalty. Her primary objective shifted from obtaining the Holy Grail for herself to simply preserving their short time together.

To achieve this end, she siphoned Mana from the populace of Fuyuki City and fortified her position on Mount Enzou. She is known to others as an honored guest of the Ryuudou family, permitted to live at their temple until the preparations for her marriage have been finalized. She is thought of as a gorgeous and talented yet mysterious woman of high stature. Her presence has attracted the attention of many trainee monks. Caster found and killed the regular master for Assassin before he could do the summoning. She used the mountain gate as a catalyst to summon a fake servant Assassin known as Sasaki Kojirou.

More detail about her relationship with her original master is given in the anime adaption of the Unlimited Blade Works route. Medea was summoned by Atrum Galliasta. He initially summoned her with the intent of taking advantage of her ability to summon the original dragon of Colchis. However, after Caster explained that while she indeed had the knowledge to summon said dragon, she didn't possess the knowledge to control it, he expressed displeasure towards her and dismissed her as useless.

Some time after Caster's summoning, Atrum shows her his workshop. He demonstrates its functions via human sacrifice, but she quickly shows him how even its advanced functions paled in comparison to her mastery of magecraft. When Atrum justifies that he invented the human sacrifice process his workshop utilizes to skip the incantation step, Caster rebukes that she does not require any incantations like he does and that magic was hers to wield freely.

She suggests that he close the workshop down, commenting that throwing the lives away in such a manner is unwise when the workshop is only generating a loss of resources; something she views as "The act of a third-rate magus". Taking it as an affront, he uses his first Command Spell to make it so she will not use her Noble Phantasm , Rule Breaker, on him in fear of stabbed in the back by a "treacherous witch". Upon returning to his workshop after his meeting with Kirei Kotomine , Atrum finds that Caster has destroyed it, killed all his workers, and let the captives go free, deeming them unnecessary and the workshop inefficient.

She suggests that she will bring him to a more suitable location, Ryuudou Temple , the heart of the ritual where the Greater Grail resides. He rejects her proposal and attempts to have her commit suicide via his second Command Spell. When the first command fails, the shocked Atrum uses his last Command Spell to reinforce the command only to find it did not work at all still. Caster then laughed at him and mocked him for his attempts before revealing that she had already broken their contract by using the Rule Breaker on herself and working around the command from the first Command Spell.

She shows him an illusion of a labyrinth with murals depicting her legend. She berates him, saying it is a fitting death for one who sought results before it was the right time to get them, and then promptly immolates him. In Fate , Caster's stronghold in the Ryuudou Temple is briefly assaulted by Saber, though her own Servant, Assassin , manages to hold her back. Some time after Berserker's defeat, she stops her collection of Magical Energy and invades the Emiya Residence to steal Saber.

However, Shirou stops her from using Rule Breaker on Saber by using his own body. During this confrontation Caster mentions that both her Master and Assassin are dead, stating that she killed her Master herself. Caster is then torn apart by Gilgamesh 's Gate of Babylon when she makes another attempt to take Saber. In Studio Deen's anime adaption, her role is expanded beyond her appearance in the Fate scenario. After the defeat of Berserker , Caster makes her move and captures Sakura Matou to use as a sacrifice in order to summon the Holy Grail and she is held in a cavern within Mount Enzo, Caster's stronghold.

She disables Saber with the Rule Breaker before leaving, so Shirou could not unleash her true power. Shirou, Saber, and Rin attempt to rescue Sakura and to stop the Holy Grail from being summoned, during which Shirou is forced to fight against a magically reinforced Souichirou Kuzuki while Saber personally deals with Assassin , respectively. Rin confronts Caster, who manipulates Sakura to fight against Rin, who fights on her own. During the fight, Sakura is revealed to be Rin's sister and that she actually comes from the Tohsaka family, which explains her abnormaly high magic circuits the reason Caster chose her for the Holy Grail's vessel despite not being a legitamate magus. In order to save her sister, Sakura allows Rin to stab her so Rin will be able to shut down Sakura's magic circuit and prevent Caster's plans from being completed.

Even though Shirou manages to elude Kuzuki while Saber manages to defeat Assassin, Caster is not worried and declares her intent to sacrifice both the sisters for the Grail if need be. However, she considers sparing Shirou if Saber were to also surrender and become her Servant in place of the fallen Assassin. Just then, Gilgamesh intrudes and declares Caster's actions to have been nothing but a fool's gamble. He goes on about how he considered just watching things play out, but chose to step in when she announced her intent to enslave Saber, since he views her as his own property. Deeming both Caster and Kuzuki thieves for trying to take what is his Saber and the Grail , he unleashes a hail of blades from his Gate of Babylon which Caster tries to fend off with a shield.

When her shield is broken, Caster is torn into by the rain of blades similar to the Unlimited Blade Works route , as she recalls how she first met Kuzuki and became his Servant. Dying, Caster checks Kuzuki to see if he is still alive, and he assures her he is before promising to achieve her wish in her stead. She brushes it aside and expresses that she is only glad he is alive at the very least, before fading away with a tearful smile; unaware that Kuzuki would die just after her, having only told her he was unharmed just to comfort Caster in her final moments.

With their deaths, the entire temple fades away. Caster has a prominent role in Unlimited Blade Works. She sets her sights on Saber as a tool to defeat Berserker , and so uses her magecraft in order to control Shirou Emiya , making him go to Ryuudou Temple in order to take his command spells. Before she can take them, however, she is attacked by Archer , who defeats her with Caladbolg II , forcing her to retreat. This incident causes Shirou and Rin Tohsaka to try to ambush her Master at night. However, their attack is unsuccessful when Kuzuki proves to be more powerful than expected. Caster's next move is taking Taiga Fujimura hostage and using her to bait Saber, successfully taking her as a Servant. After capturing Saber, Caster attacks the church and seemingly kills Kirei Kotomine , taking over the church and using it as a stronghold.

She later takes Archer as her Servant when he betrays Rin. Caster's faction's last battle takes place against Shirou, Rin and Lancer. Before Rin can finish off Caster, she is knocked out by Kuzuki, who already defeated Shirou. Caster's final moments are in protecting her Master from a barrage of blades from within Archer's Unlimited Blade Works when he betrays her. Caster is killed early on in Heaven's Feel by Saber. After her defeat, she was the first Servant to be devoured by the Shadow before disappearing, thereby interfering with the ritual of 5th Holy Grail War and making Sakura into the Lesser Grail instead of Illya.

Later, Zouken Matou uses one of his worm familiars to keep Caster's body alive as a puppet. Saber and Archer later destroy the puppet during a confrontation with Zouken. There she finds Kuzuki, who had been severely wounded by True Assassin. He tells her to remove her control over him as a result of being summoned from Assassin's body. Believing it could save Kuzuki, Caster stabs herself with Rule Breaker to rescind the contract.

However, True Assassin responds by immediately slashing her throat to kill her and throwing a dirk into Kuzuki's head to finish him off afterwards. After he leaves, Caster's body is taken by the Shadow. Caster later appears as Zouken's puppet sustained by his worms when Shirou, Saber, Rin, and Archer confront him in the park. Disgusted at Caster's corpse being desecrated, Saber charges at her and Zouken. Pulling Rule Breaker from her chest, Caster prepares to stab Saber, but Archer intervenes by cutting her arm off.

She then prepares a massive fireball to kill both Shirou and Rin, but the Shadow appears to shock all present. Caster throws her fireball at the Shadow, only for the mysterious entity to absorb it. After Zouken escapes when he is beheaded by Archer, Caster's body is consumed by the Shadow. In the manga, Caster's role both remains the same as her roles in the Fate and Unlimited Blade Works scenarios and expanded at the same time. In the manga, Caster becomes the secondary villain or major antagonist, she manages to stab Saber with Rule Breaker and negate her contract with Shirou; Caster then abducts Saber and tortures her, hoping to provoke Saber into becoming her Servant.

She later blackmails Archer into joining her. While attempting to kill Shirou Emiya and Rin Tohsaka in the basement of the Kotomine Church, she is severely wounded by Archer protecting her Master from Archer 's hailstorm of blades and is hacked to near-death by the crimson knight. While she is left to die she mourns for her dead master, she survives when she is revived by Kirei Kotomine, who offers her a chance of winning the holy grail and an opportunity at revenge if she becomes his servant. This is all a deception as Kotomine is just manipulating her to allow him to have the joy of seeing her suffer and fail even more. When Caster assaults the Emiya residence she is torn apart by Gilgamesh 's Gate of Babylon during her ambush.

She lives as Kuzuki Souichirou's wife and tries to be one of his approval with most of her actions. When seen at the Ryuudou Temple, she is usually doing menial chores and remains at odds with her own Servant, Assassin. Caster, while having settled down like the rest of the Servants, is the most cautious despite the peace, ready to act on short notice. She also fights the dog-shadows using anti-army spells, often coming close to killing her allies. Caster's route is set during one of her schemes to spend more time with Kuzuki, this time by pretending to a student at his school. Caster first invites Sakura over to the temple and after it is made known that Sakura will not lend Caster her uniform, Caster quickly default to magic and place her in an enchanted sleep in order to steal her uniform.

But before she could go through with the deed, Rider intervenes to protect her mistress,however Caster make short work of her as well. Deciding that she no longer had the heart to steal the uniform, Caster chose to cast a disguise spell on herself to give the perception of her wearing a school uniform. After leaving the temple, shenanigans ensues which included evading Saber by boarding a bus, punishing Lancer, and battle Rin and Archer. After having had enough, Caster returns to the temple exhausted from her failed attempt at spending a day with Kuzuki and while taking her frustration out on Assassin, Kuzuki returns and surprised her with two tickets to a movie.

Medea appears under the name Mouri Medinari. She agrees with Chousokabe Emichika wishing he could refuse to obey as a Servant this time around while noting the magical energy flowing from the Grail is strange. Complaining about the Grail being used for something weird again, she asks Emichika and Shimuza Setanta if they want a proper Holy Grail War. Emichika suspects she figured out the situation. Medinari confirms this, but she admits she cannot do anything about it since the Grail has been tampered with and turned everything weird.

When Shimuza senses Ritsuka's party coming, Medinari orders him to lure them away and Emichika to ambush them. After her strategy succeeds, she mocks the group for falling for it. She then wonders what to do with them after Emichika asks. After being defeated by Okita, Medinari laments that her old self is so pitiful that it hurts and disappears. Medea tells Siegfried to destroy Ritsuka's party, saying the treasure on Mysterious Heroine X 's ship will be his for the taking. Medea Lily tells Siegfried not to listen to Medea's words. X suddenly attacks the three of them. Medea's hood comes off, and she screams that her identity will be revealed. Someone later rendered her unconscious.

She warns the one who accompanied them was an impostor. When comms with the party are restored, Medea is enraged to learn that Circe was her impostor. Fortunately for Circe, there is no audio for her to hear Medea's rant. After current circumstances are explained, Medea asks Circe through Da Vinci if she intends to return to Chaldea. Circe vehemently refuses, but Ritsuka tells Medea that she said " absolutely ". She has Sanson confirm he was resummoned at the same time the others returned from Salem without his memories of what transpired there.

Then she asks Robin what happened to Circe. Robin asks her what she thinks of Circe, noting how she tricked everyone. Medea sees it as Circe taking revenge, confessing she was disrespectful to her when she was younger. She explains she created a diorama that she made into a miniature Reality Marble. As well, Medea claims the dolls are literally alive, thanks to her personally taking time to make each one. Unfortunately, the doll Medea gave administrative rights over the diorama began to ignore her orders and act on its own. Medea warns removing the so-called Doll King from the inside would cause everything to break. Thus, in order to minimize damage, it is best to go in and involve ones-self. Medea then transports everyone into the miniature world. She explains she transferred the group's minds into the diorama and that it will revert once the Doll King is defeated.

After defeating a number of dolls, she is shocked they were able to create an automaton. The group then fight her and her Shadow Servants. After Medea finishes her off with Rule Breaker , she demands Ritsuka and Mash to forget everything they saw. She calls herself a pathetic and lonely girl who has dolls for friends. She declares she will achieve happiness one day after dismissing Mash's belief she would find love one day as worthless sympathy.

Caster is reduced to a more comedic character within Carnival Phantasm , repeatedly hinting to Kuzuki that she wants to marry him. She gets a full personal segment in episode 7, detailing her obsession with Saber. It is revealed that she is actually an Otaku who wants Saber, not as a servant, but rather as a pet or a doll for her to dress up or play with. The episode ends with Kuzuki proposing to her, to which she begins sobbing out of happiness and wondering to herself if she deserves happiness. In the latter, Caster wants to cook something special for Kuzuki but lacks the skill, and requests Shirou's help in tutoring her. She fails to do the dish perfectly when she tries it at home but Kuzuki is more than happy to give her a chance to practice and get better. In Episode 11, Caster and Kuzuki are customers at a cafe Lancer is working at, to Caster's dismay, who had wanted to spend time with Kuzuki without any other Servant involved.

She does, however, enjoy the food cooked by Archer. When she manifested, her appearance is slightly altered. Her cloak and dress have a tattered appearance with white fur drapped across the shoulders. Caster was summoned in the Seventh Labyrinth of Caubac Alcatraz. Caster wishes to use the Subcategory of the Holy Grail. After encountering Artoria Pendragon and Manaka Sajyou during a boss battle with a Kelpie, Caster accompanies the pair along with Robin Hood and Hassan of the Cursed Arm to the start of the fourth floor.

When Manaka mysteriously disappears, Assassin is shocked to see Norma Goodfellow in her place. However, before he can ask her any questions, Norma runs away and winds up falling into a pit trap. Left with more questions than answers, Assassin and the other Servants battle their way through the remaining floors until they end up at the innermost chamber. Along the way, Saber disappears due to Manaka no longer fuelling her magic circuits. Entering the chamber, Caster spots Norma about to be killed by Wolfgang Faustus. One of the key thoughts of Hinduism is the belief in the soul, or atman. This philosophy holds that all living creatures have a soul, and all will be reincarnated, which is one reason why many Hindus are vegetarians.

The caste system, described in the module on social stratification, is based on the Hindu principles of karma and dharma. Multiple sacred texts, collectively called the Vedas, were composed around B. They are mostly written in Sanskrit. There are several Hindu festivals that are observed, but Diwali, or the festival of lights, is probably the most well known. The five days of Diwali include different rituals such as spring cleaning, shopping, decorating, praying, fasting, gift-giving, and eating, but the focal point of the celebration includes lighting lamps to represent a victory of good over evil and the light that comes from within.

Another popular festival is the celebration of the arrival of spring, known as Holi, or the festival of colors, named for the bright colors of powders and water that many throw at others during the celebration. After the dissolution of the British Raj in , two new sovereign nations were formed—the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The subsequent partition of the former British India displaced up to India emerged as a secular nation with a Hindu majority population and a large Muslim minority, while Pakistan emerged also as a secular nation with a Muslim majority population and a large Hindu minority.

Learn about the basic beliefs and practices of Hinduism in this short video. Jainism is another predominantly Indian religion that shares some commonalities with Hinduism, although there are still major distinctions. Jains consider their religion to be eternal sanatan , and trace their history through a succession of 24 victorious saviors and teachers known as tirthankaras. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology. These principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles. Figure 6. Buddhism promotes peace and tolerance.

Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama around B. Siddhartha was born as a prince in present-day Nepal and was so moved by the suffering in the world, he is said to have given up a comfortable, upper-class life to follow one of poverty and spiritual devotion. At the age of thirty-five, he famously meditated under a sacred fig tree and vowed not to rise before he achieved enlightenment bodhi. Buddha taught that wisdom, kindness, patience, generosity and compassion were important virtues. Buddhism also tends to deemphasize the role of a godhead, instead stressing the importance of personal responsibility Craig This is illustrated by five moral principles, which prohibit:. Figure 7. Meditation is an important practice in Buddhism. A Tibetan monk is shown here engaged in solitary meditation.

According to Buddhism, there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. While some of the main tenets were explained above, Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs, and spiritual practices, and can be further divided into other traditions, which have some variations in their beliefs. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism.

Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region, Mongolia, and Kalmykia. There are no clear boundaries between these intertwined religious systems, which do not claim to be exclusive, and elements of each enrich popular or folk religion. Following a period of enforced atheism after the Cultural Revolution in China, religion has recently become more popular once again. In Taoism also commonly written as Daoism , the purpose of life is inner peace and harmony.

In the Tao Te Ching, Laozi often explains his ideas by way of paradox, analogy, repetition, symmetry, rhyme, and rhythm. Taoism as an organized religion began in the year C. Taoism became a semi-official Chinese religion during the Tang dynasty 7thth centuries and continued during the Song dynasty As Confucianism gained popularity, Taoism gradually fell from favor, and changed from an official religion to a popular religious tradition. The central concept of tao describes a spiritual reality, the order of the universe, as being in harmony with the virtues of compassion and moderation. The ying-yang symbol and the concept of polar forces are central Taoist ideas Smith At this time Taoism began to flourish in the greater freedom on offer in Taiwan a separatist island territory which had not been absorbed into the new communist China.

After the end of the Cultural Revolution the Chinese government began to allow a small measure of religious freedom. Taoism began to revive in China, and Taoist temples and practitioners can now be found throughout the country. Chinese alchemy especially neidan , Chinese astrology, Chan Zen Buddhism, several martial arts, traditional Chinese medicine, feng shui, and many styles of qigong have been intertwined with Taoism throughout history. He did not intend to create a new religion, but sought to provide structure and reform to some of the religious ambiguities of the Zhou dynasty. The worldly concern of Confucianism rests upon the belief that human beings are fundamentally good, teachable, and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor, especially self-cultivation and self-creation.

Confucian thought focuses on the development of virtue in a morally organized world. It is the virtue-form of Heaven, and the source of all other virtues. Confucianism was the official religion of China from B. Like Taoism, Confucianism spread to other countries and was somewhat dormant in China for a time, but is on the rise once again. For more insight on Confucianism, read the Analects by Confucius.

Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people. It is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion that encompasses the religion, philosophy, and culture of the Jewish people. It began over 3, years ago and is well known through the book of both the Torah and the Old Testament called Exodus, which describes the emancipation of the Hebrews from Egyptian captivity in the thirteenth century B. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel. It encompasses a wide body of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization.

The Torah is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh, or the Hebrew Bible, and is supplemented by oral tradition represented in later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. The Torah consists of the five books of Moses, which are also contained in the Christian Bible. With between The most important teaching of Judaism is that there is one God, who wants people to do what is just and compassionate.

Judaism teaches that a person serves God by learning the holy books and doing what they teach. These teachings include both ritual actions and ethical interpretative frameworks. Jews place an emphasis on moral behavior and action in this world as opposed to personal salvation in the next world. Major sources of difference between these groups include their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition, and the significance of the State of Israel. There is a wide spectrum of devotion, practice, and even appearance within Judaism, but the most visible are Orthodox Jews because they are recognized by their outward appearance.

For example, one ultra-orthodox group that emphasizes conservatism and tradition are Hasidic Jews, who have a large population in parts of Brooklyn, New York. The text was originally prepared by Wumen as a record of his teaching during a monastic training period held at Longxiang Soaring Dragon monastery in the summer of Wumen selected the 48 koans and commented on and added a verse for each koan. His teachings were transcribed and after the training period were compiled into the collection called the Wumen Guan. As was customary in China at the time, an edition might have additions of text inserted by a subsequent owner or publisher. The most well known version of the text is from the Japanese wood block edition made from the manuscript edition that contains the following sections.

As with the main koans, each caveat challenges the Zen student's attachment to dualistic concepts, here those especially related to Zen practice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from The Gateless Gate. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main articles.

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