➊ The Seleucid Empire

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The Seleucid Empire

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Seleucid Empire

September - 2 June Antiochus II Theos. Seleucus II Callinicus. December - April-June Antiochus III the Great. April-June - 3 July Seleucus IV Philopator. Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Antiochus V Eupator. Demetrius I Soter. Alexander I Balas. Demetrius II Nicator first reign. Antiochus VI Dionysus or Epiphanes. After her repudiation he followed Egyptian custom and married his sister , Arsinoe II , beginning a practice that, while pleasing to the Egyptian population, had serious consequences in later reigns. The material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy II.

Callimachus , keeper of the Library of Alexandria , Theocritus , and a host of other poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family. Ptolemy himself was eager to increase the library and to patronise scientific research. He spent lavishly on making Alexandria the economic, artistic and intellectual capital of the Hellenistic world. The academies and libraries of Alexandria proved vital in preserving much Greek literary heritage.

He abandoned his predecessors' policy of keeping out of the wars of the other Macedonian successor kingdoms, and plunged into the Third Syrian War — BC with the Seleucid Empire of Syria , when his sister, Queen Berenice , and her son were murdered in a dynastic dispute. Ptolemy marched triumphantly into the heart of the Seleucid realm, as far as Babylonia , while his fleets in the Aegean Sea made fresh conquests as far north as Thrace. This victory marked the zenith of the Ptolemaic power. After this triumph Ptolemy no longer engaged actively in war, although he supported the enemies of Macedon in Greek politics. His domestic policy differed from his father's in that he patronised the native Egyptian religion more liberally: he left larger traces among the Egyptian monuments.

In this his reign marks the gradual Egyptianisation of the Ptolemies. Ptolemy III continued his predecessor's sponsorship of scholarship and literature. The Great Library in the Musaeum was supplemented by a second library built in the Serapeum. He was said to have had every book unloaded in the Alexandria docks seized and copied, returning the copies to their owners and keeping the originals for the Library. The most distinguished scholar at Ptolemy III's court was the polymath and geographer Eratosthenes , most noted for his remarkably accurate calculation of the circumference of the world. Other prominent scholars include the mathematicians Conon of Samos and Apollonius of Perge.

Ptolemy III financed construction projects at temples across Egypt. The most significant of these was the Temple of Horus at Edfu , one of the masterpieces of ancient Egyptian temple architecture and now the best-preserved of all Egyptian temples. His reign was inaugurated by the murder of his mother, and he was always under the influence of royal favourites , who controlled the government. Nevertheless, his ministers were able to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-Syria, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia in BC secured the kingdom. A sign of the domestic weakness of his reign was the rebellions by native Egyptians that took away over half the country for over 20 years.

Philopator was devoted to orgiastic religions and to literature. Like his predecessors, Ptolemy IV presented himself as a typical Egyptian Pharaoh and actively supported the Egyptian priestly elite through donations and temple construction. The result of this synod was the Raphia Decree , issued on 15 November BC and preserved in three copies. Like other Ptolemaic decrees , the decree was inscribed in hieroglyphs , Demotic , and Koine Greek. Throughout, Ptolemy IV is presented as taking on the role of Horus who avenges his father by defeating the forces of disorder led by the god Set. In return, the priests undertook to erect a statue group in each of their temples, depicting the god of the temple presenting a sword of victory to Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III.

A five-day festival was inaugurated in honour of the Theoi Philopatores and their victory. The decree thus seems to represent a successful marriage of Egyptian Pharaonic ideology and religion with the Hellenistic Greek ideology of the victorious king and his ruler cult. Misrule by the Pharaoh in Alexandria led to a nearly successful revolt, led by a priest named Hugronaphor. He was succeeded by his son Ankhmakis , whose forces nearly drove the Ptolomys out of the country. The revolutionary dynasty was finally defeated in , and a stele celebrating this event was historically significant as the famous Rosetta Stone.

After this defeat Egypt formed an alliance with the rising power in the Mediterranean, Rome. Once he reached adulthood Epiphanes became a tyrant, before his early death in BC. He was succeeded by his infant son Ptolemy VI Philometor. When Antiochus withdrew, the brothers agreed to reign jointly with their sister Cleopatra II. They soon fell out, however, and quarrels between the two brothers allowed Rome to interfere and to steadily increase its influence in Egypt.

Philometor eventually regained the throne. In BC, he was killed in the Battle of Antioch. This achievement is heavily advertised at the Temple of Isis at Philae , which was granted the tax revenues of the Dodecaschoenus region in BC. Decorations on the first pylon of the Temple of Isis at Philae emphasise the Ptolemaic claim to rule the whole of Nubia.

The aforementioned inscription regarding the priests of Mandulis shows that some Nubian leaders at least were paying tribute to the Ptolemaic treasury in this period. In order to secure the region, the strategos of Upper Egypt, Boethus , founded two new cities, named Philometris and Cleopatra in honour of the royal couple. After Ptolemy VI's death a series of civil wars and feuds between the members of the Ptolemaic dynasty started and would last for over a century.

But Physcon soon returned, killed his young nephew, seized the throne and as Ptolemy VIII soon proved himself a cruel tyrant. He was lynched by the Alexandrian mob after murdering his stepmother, who was also his cousin, aunt and wife. These sordid dynastic quarrels left Egypt so weakened that the country became a de facto protectorate of Rome, which had by now absorbed most of the Greek world. By now Rome was the arbiter of Egyptian affairs, and annexed both Libya and Cyprus.

In 58 BC Auletes was driven out by the Alexandrian mob, but the Romans restored him to power three years later. She reigned as queen "philopator" and pharaoh with various male co-regents from 51 to 30 BC when she died at the age of The demise of the Ptolemies' power coincided with the growing dominance of the Roman Republic. With one empire after another falling to Macedon and the Seleucid empire, the Ptolemies had had little choice but to ally with the Romans, a pact that lasted over years.

By Ptolemy XII's time, Rome had achieved a massive amount of influence over Egyptian politics and finances to the point that he declared the Roman senate the guardian of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He had paid vast sums of Egyptian wealth and resources in tribute to the Romans in order to regain and secure his throne following the rebellion and brief coup led by his older daughters, Tryphaena and Berenice IV. Both daughters were killed in Auletes' reclaiming of his throne; Tryphaena by assassination and Berenice by execution, leaving Cleopatra VII as the oldest surviving child of Ptolemy Auletes.

Traditionally, Ptolemaic royal siblings were married to one another on ascension to the throne. These marriages sometimes produced children, and other times were only a ceremonial union to consolidate political power. Ptolemy Auletes expressed his wish for Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIII to marry and rule jointly in his will, in which the Roman senate was named as executor, giving Rome further control over the Ptolemies and, thereby, the fate of Egypt as a nation. Their marriage was only nominal, however, and their relationship soon degenerated.

Cleopatra was stripped of authority and title by Ptolemy XIII's advisors, who held considerable influence over the young king. Fleeing into exile, Cleopatra would attempt to raise an army to reclaim the throne. Julius Caesar left Rome for Alexandria in 48 BC in order to quell the looming civil war, as war in Egypt, which was one of Rome's greatest suppliers of grain and other expensive goods, would have had a detrimental effect on trade with Rome, especially on Rome's working-class citizens. During his stay in the Alexandrian palace, he received year-old Cleopatra, allegedly carried to him in secret wrapped in a carpet. Caesar agreed to support Cleopatra's claim to the throne. Ptolemy XIII and his advisors fled the palace, turning the Egyptian forces loyal to the throne against Caesar and Cleopatra, who barricaded themselves in the palace complex until Roman reinforcements could arrive to combat the rebellion, known afterward as the battles in Alexandria.

Ptolemy XIII's forces were ultimately defeated at the Battle of the Nile and the king was killed in the conflict, reportedly drowning in the Nile while attempting to flee with his remaining army. Together, they visited Dendara , where Cleopatra was being worshiped as pharaoh, an honor beyond Caesar's reach. They became lovers, and she bore him a son, Caesarion. With his death, Rome split between supporters of Mark Antony and Octavian. When Mark Antony seemed to prevail, Cleopatra supported him and, shortly after, they too became lovers and eventually married in Egypt though their marriage was never recognized by Roman law, as Antony was married to a Roman woman.

Their union produced three children; the twins Cleopatra Selene and Alexander Helios , and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphos. Mark Antony's alliance with Cleopatra angered Rome even more. Branded a power-hungry enchantress by the Romans, she was accused of seducing Antony to further her conquest of Rome. Further outrage followed at the donations of Alexandria ceremony in autumn of 34 BC in which Tarsus , Cyrene , Crete , Cyprus , and Judaea were all to be given as client monarchies to Antony's children by Cleopatra. In his will Antony expressed his desire to be buried in Alexandria, rather than taken to Rome in the event of his death, which Octavian used against Antony, sowing further dissent in the Roman populace. Octavian was quick to declare war on Antony and Cleopatra while public opinion of Antony was low.

Their naval forces met at Actium , where the forces of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa defeated the navy of Cleopatra and Antony. Octavian waited for a year before he claimed Egypt as a Roman province. He arrived in Alexandria and easily defeated Mark Antony's remaining forces outside the city. Facing certain death at the hands of Octavian , Antony attempted suicide by falling on his own sword, but survived briefly. He was taken by his remaining soldiers to Cleopatra, who had barricaded herself in her mausoleum, where he died soon after.

Knowing that she would be taken to Rome to be paraded in Octavian's triumph and likely executed thereafter , Cleopatra and her handmaidens committed suicide on 12 August 30 BC. Legend and numerous ancient sources claim that she died by way of the venomous bite of an asp , though others state that she used poison, or that Octavian ordered her death himself. Caesarion, her son by Julius Caesar, nominally succeeded Cleopatra until his capture and supposed execution in the weeks after his mother's death.

Cleopatra's children by Antony were spared by Octavian and given to his sister and Antony's Roman wife Octavia Minor , to be raised in her household. No further mention is made of Cleopatra and Antony's sons in the known historical texts of that time, but their daughter Cleopatra Selene was eventually married through arrangement by Octavian into the Mauretanian royal line, one of Rome's many client monarchies. Through Cleopatra Selene's offspring the Ptolemaic line intermarried back into the Roman nobility for centuries. With the deaths of Cleopatra and Caesarion, the dynasty of Ptolemies and the entirety of pharaonic Egypt came to an end.

Alexandria remained the capital of the country, but Egypt itself became a Roman province. Octavian became the sole ruler of Rome and began converting it into a monarchy, the Roman Empire. Under Roman rule, Egypt was governed by a prefect selected by the emperor from the Equestrian class and not a governor from the Senatorial order, to prevent interference by the Roman Senate. The main Roman interest in Egypt was always the reliable delivery of grain to the city of Rome. To this end the Roman administration made no change to the Ptolemaic system of government, although Romans replaced Greeks in the highest offices. But Greeks continued to staff most of the administrative offices and Greek remained the language of government except at the highest levels.

Unlike the Greeks, the Romans did not settle in Egypt in large numbers. Culture, education and civic life largely remained Greek throughout the Roman period. The Romans, like the Ptolemies, respected and protected Egyptian religion and customs, although the cult of the Roman state and of the Emperor was gradually introduced. Ptolemy I, perhaps with advice from Demetrius of Phalerum , founded the Library of Alexandria , [25] a research centre located in the royal sector of the city. Its scholars were housed in the same sector and funded by Ptolemaic rulers.

Greek culture had a long but minor presence in Egypt long before Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria. It began when Greek colonists, encouraged by many Pharaohs, set up the trading post of Naucratis. As Egypt came under foreign domination and decline, the Pharaohs depended on the Greeks as mercenaries and even advisors. When the Persians took over Egypt, Naucratis remained an important Greek port and the colonist population were used as mercenaries by both the rebel Egyptian princes and the Persian kings, who later gave them land grants, spreading Greek culture into the valley of the Nile.

When Alexander the Great arrived, he established Alexandria on the site of the Persian fort of Rhakortis. Following Alexander's death, control passed into the hands of the Lagid Ptolemaic Dynasty; they built Greek cities across their empire and gave land grants across Egypt to the veterans of their many military conflicts. Hellenistic civilization continued to thrive even after Rome annexed Egypt after the battle of Actium and did not decline until the Islamic conquests.

Ptolemaic art was produced during the reign of the Ptolemaic Rulers —30 BC , and was concentrated primarily within the bounds of the Ptolemaic Empire. The continuation of the Egyptian art style evidences the Ptolemies' commitment to maintaining Egyptian customs. This strategy not only helped to legitimize their rule, but also placated the general population. For example, the faience sistrum inscribed with the name of Ptolemy has some deceptively Greek characteristics, such as the scrolls at the top. However, there are many examples of nearly identical sistrums and columns dating all the way to Dynasty 18 in the New Kingdom. It is, therefore, purely Egyptian in style. Aside from the name of the king, there are other features that specifically date this to the Ptolemaic period.

Most distinctively is the color of the faience. Apple green, deep blue, and lavender-blue are the three colors most frequently used during this period, a shift from the characteristic blue of the earlier kingdoms. During the reign of Ptolemy II, Arsinoe II was deified either as stand-alone goddesses or as a personification of another divine figure and given their own sanctuaries and festivals in association to both Egyptian and Hellenistic gods such as Isis of Egypt and Hera of Greece. The Statuette of Arsinoe II was created c. The figure also exemplifies the fusing of Greek and Egyptian art.

Although the backpillar and the goddess's striding pose is distinctively Egyptian, the cornucopia she holds and her hairstyle are both Greek in style. The rounded eyes, prominent lips, and overall youthful features show Greek influence as well. Despite the unification of Greek and Egyptian elements in the intermediate Ptolemaic period, the Ptolemaic Kingdom also featured prominent temple construction as a continuation of developments based on Egyptian art tradition from the Thirtieth Dynasty. Scenes were often framed with textual inscriptions, with a higher text to image ratio than seen previously during the New Kingdom.

The figures in the scenes are smooth, rounded, and high relief, a style continued throughout the 30th Dynasty. The relief represents the interaction between the Ptolemaic kings and the Egyptian deities, which legitimized their rule in Egypt. In Ptolemaic art, the idealism seen in the art of previous dynasties continues, with some alterations. Women are portrayed as more youthful, and men begin to be portrayed in a range from idealistic to realistic. Serapis was the patron god of Ptolemaic Egypt, combining the Egyptian gods Apis and Osiris with the Greek deities Zeus, Hades, Asklepios , Dionysos, and Helios; he had powers over fertility, the sun, funerary rites, and medicine.

His growth and popularity reflected a deliberate policy by the Ptolemaic state, and was characteristic of the dynasty's use of Egyptian religion to legitimize their rule and strengthen their control. The cult of Serapis included the worship of the new Ptolemaic line of pharaohs; the newly established Hellenistic capital of Alexandria supplanted Memphis as the preeminent religious city. Ptolemy I also promoted the cult of the deified Alexander , who became the state god of the Ptolemaic kingdom. Many rulers also promoted individual cults of personality, including celebrations at Egyptian temples. Because the monarchy remained staunchly Hellenistic, despite otherwise co-opting Egyptian faith traditions, religion during this period was highly syncretic.

Cleopatra VII , the last of the Ptolemaic line, was often depicted with characteristics of the goddess Isis ; she usually had either a small throne as her headdress or the more traditional sun disk between two horns. Nevertheless, the Ptolemies remained generally supportive of the Egyptian religion, which always remained key to their legitimacy. Egyptian priests and other religious authorities enjoyed royal patronage and support, more or less retaining their historical privileged status.

Temples remained the focal point of social, economic, and cultural life; the first three reigns of the dynasty were characterized by rigorous temple building, including the completion of projects left over from the previous dynasty; many older or neglected structures were restored or enhanced. In many respects, the Egyptian religion thrived: temples became centers of learning and literature in the traditional Egyptian style. Memphis, while no longer the center of power, became the second city after Alexandria, and enjoyed considerable influence; its High Priests of Ptah , an ancient Egyptian creator god, held considerable sway among the priesthood and even with the Ptolemaic kings.

Saqqara , the city's necropolis, was a leading center of worship of Apis bull, which had become integrated into the national mythos. The Ptolemies also lavished attention on Hermopolis, the cult center of Thoth, building a Hellenistic-style temple in his honor. Thebes continued to be a major religious center and home to a powerful priesthood; it also enjoyed royal development, namely of the Karnak complex devoted to the Osiris and Khonsu. The city's temples and communities prosperous, while a new Ptolemaic style of cemeteries were built. A common stele that appears during the Ptolemaic Dynasty is the cippus , a type of religious object produced for the purpose of protecting individuals.

These magical stelae were made of various materials such as limestone, chlorite schist, and metagreywacke, and were connected with matters of health and safety. Cippi during the Ptolemaic Period generally featured the child form of the Egyptian god Horus, Horpakhered. This portrayal refers to the myth of Horus triumphing over dangerous animals in the marshes of Khemmis with magic power also known as Akhmim. Ptolemaic Egypt was highly stratified in terms of both class and language. More than any previous foreign rulers, the Ptolemies retained or co-opted many aspects of the Egyptian social order, using Egyptian religion, traditions, and political structures to increase their own power and wealth.

As before, peasant farmers remained the vast majority of the population, while agricultural land and produce were owned directly by the state, temple, or noble family that owned the land. Recent discussion indicates a market-oriented economy under the Seleucids. Little is known about the economy of the Upper Satrapies. Currency plays an increasingly central role under the Seleucids; however, we should note that monetization was nothing new in their newly acquired lands. The adoption of the Attic standard was not uniform across the realm.

The Attic standard was already the common currency of the Mediterranean prior to Alexander's conquest; that is, it was the preferred currency for foreign transactions. And the use of a Greek tetradrachm would be "a far too heavy denomination…in daily trade. Bronze coinage, dating from the late fifth and fourth century, and was popularized as a "fiduciary" currency facilitating "small-scale exchanges" in the Hellenistic period. However, Spek notes a chronic shortage of silver in the Seleucid empire. Agriculture, like most pre-modern economies, constituted a vast majority of the Seleucid economy. We should clarify that the term poleis , according to Spek, did not confer any special status to cities in the Seleucid sources; it was simply the term for "city"—Greek or otherwise.

Recent evidence indicates that Mesopotamian grain production, under the Seleucids, was subject to market forces of supply and demand. Therefore, during periods of war, heavy taxation, and crop failure, prices increase drastically. In an extreme example, Spek believes tribal Arab raiding into Babylonia caused barley prices to skyrocket to a whopping g silver per ton from 5—8 May, BCE. The Seleucids also continued the tradition of actively maintaining the Mesopotamian waterways.

As the greatest source of state income, the Seleucid kings actively managed the irrigation, reclamation, and population of Mesopotamia. As a hegemonic empire, the state's primary focus was maintaining its sizable army via wealth extraction from three major sources: [51] tribute from autonomous poleis and temples, and proportional land-tax from royal land. While all agree poleis do not constitute royal land, some remain uncertain over the status of temple land.

In theory, the Seleucid state was an absolute monarchy that did not recognize private property in our modern sense. Here, a "proportional land-tax", that is, a tax based on the size of one's plot, is collected by the local governor or Satrap and sent to the capital. Tribute was heavily levied on poleis and temples. Although tribute is paid annually, the amount demanded increases significantly during wartime. The controversial practice of temple "despoliation", however, was a regular occurrence under the Seleucids—in contrast to earlier times. Taylor: [50]. It is difficult to believe that these monarchs who knew enough to bow before Nabu, bake bricks for Esagil, and enforce kosher regulations in Jerusalem, would be blithely aware of the political hazards of removing Temple treasures.

It is more likely that they knew the risks but took them anyway. Recent discussion has since rejected these traditional dichotomies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tetradrachm of Seleucus I — the horned horse, the elephant and the anchor all served as symbols of the Seleucid monarchy. Greek official [3] Persian Aramaic [3]. Main article: Diadochi. Main article: Babylonian War. Main article: Seleucid—Mauryan war. Further information: Roman—Seleucid War. Further information: Seleucid—Parthian wars and Maccabean Revolt. Further information: Seleucid Dynastic Wars. Further information: Seleucid coinage. Main article: Seleucid Army. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: List of Seleucid rulers. Ancient Greece portal. Social Science History. JSTOR History of Civilisation. ISBN Archaeology of Iran in the Historical Period. Springer Nature. University of California Press. Provincial reactions to Roman imperialism: the aftermath of the Jewish revolt, A. University of California, Berkeley. The Journal of Hellenic studies, Volumes — Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies. The Seleucid kingdom has traditionally been regarded as basically a Greco-Macedonian state and its rulers thought of as successors to Alexander.

Cambridge University Press. The wars between the two most prominent Greek dynasties, the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Seleucids of Syria, unalterably change the history of the land of Israel…As a result the land of Israel became part of the empire of the Syrian Greek Seleucids. Syria, Lebanon, Jordan. OCLC In addition to the court and the army, Syrian cities were full of Greek businessmen, many of them pure Greeks from Greece. The senior posts in the civil service were also held by Greeks. Although the Ptolemies and the Seleucids were perpetual rivals, both dynasties were Greek and ruled by means of Greek officials and Greek soldiers.

Both governments made great efforts to attract immigrants from Greece, thereby adding yet another racial element to the population. Hause; William S. Maltby Western civilization: a history of European society. Thomson Wadsworth. The Greco-Macedonian Elite. The Seleucids respected the cultural and religious sensibilities of their subjects but preferred to rely on Greek or Macedonian soldiers and administrators for the day-to-day business of governing. The Greek population of the cities, reinforced until the second century BC by immigration from Greece, formed a dominant, although not especially cohesive, elite.

Colonial education and class formation in early Judaism: a postcolonial reading. Continuum International Publishing Group. Like other Hellenistic kings, the Seleucids ruled with the help of their "friends" and a Greco-Macedonian elite class separate from the native populations whom they governed. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Kosmin The Land of the Elephant Kings. Smith Asian Educational Services. Classical Philology.

S2CID Ancient India , p. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. The evolution of man and society. Seleucus' Elephants, 2. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Alexander the Great's Art of Strategy. Gotham Books. Erickson ed. Time and Its Adversaries in the Seleucid Empire. Harvard University Press. Uusi antiikin historia in Finnish. Cambridge: Cambridge Philological Society Supplementary.

Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing Limited. Topoi : — — via Academia. Baker and Michael Jursa. Oxford and Philadelphia: Oxbow Books. Israel Numismatic Journal. Egitto: Dai Faraoni Agli Arabi. Amsterdam: J. The Classical Review. Ancient Syria and Mesopotamia. Ancient Mesopotamia. The division of Alexander's empire. Empires largest Ancient great powers Medieval great powers Modern great powers European colonialism African empires.

Hellenistic rulers. Lysimachus Ptolemy Epigonos. Hellenistic rulers were preceded by Hellenistic satraps in most of their territories. History of Anatolia. Iran topics. Sasanian Empire AD — Patriarchal Caliphate — Umayyad Caliphate — Abbasid Caliphate — Tahirid dynasty — Alavid dynasty — Saffarid dynasty — Samanid dynasty — Ziyarid dynasty — Buyid dynasty — Ambassadors President Provincial governors Supreme Leader. Corruption Crime Education higher scientists and scholars universities Brain drain Health care International rankings Nationality Water supply and sanitation Women. Science and technology Anti-Iranian sentiment Tehrangeles.

Category Portal WikiProject Commons. Rulers of the Ancient Near East. Hallo; W. Simpson The Ancient Near East. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. Mesopotamia: Civilization Begins. Getty Publications. Ancient Iraq. Penguin Books Limited. Wipf and Stock Publishers. Authority control. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Hellenistic monarchy. Seleucus I first. Philip II last. Hellenistic period. Preceded by. Macedonian Empire. Maurya Empire. Province of Syria. Parthian Empire. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.

The rounded eyes, The Seleucid Empire lips, and overall The Seleucid Empire features beetroot cell membrane The Seleucid Empire influence as well. Edgar has The Seleucid Empire pointed out that the building connected with it was an Egyptian temple, not a The Seleucid Empire building. View Complete Profile. Umma II dynasty The Seleucid Empire vassal of the The Seleucid Empire.

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