➊ Factors Affecting Nashvilles Physiographic Regions
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World Climates - Factors influencing Climates
Second, offensive use of local militia against Indian raids required authorization from the governor of Virginia. It forbade trade with the Spanish colony of New Orleans, which controlled the mouth of the Mississippi, but this was important to Kentucky communities. The magnitude of these problems increased with the rapid growth of population in Kentucky, leading Colonel Benjamin Logan to call a constitutional convention in Danville in Over the next several years, nine more conventions were held. During one, General James Wilkinson proposed secession from both Virginia and the United States to become a ward of Spain, but the idea was defeated.
The second and operative act required that the Confederation Congress admit Kentucky into the Union by July 4, A Committee of the Whole reported that Kentucky be so admitted, and on July 3, the full Congress took up the question of Kentucky statehood. Therefore it resolved…. That the said Legislature and the inhabitants of the district aforesaid [Kentucky] be informed, that as the constitution of the United States is now ratified, Congress think it unadviseable [sic] to adopt any further measures for admitting the district of Kentucky into the federal Union as an independent member thereof under the Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union; but that Congress thinking it expedient that the said district be made a separate State and member of the Union as soon after proceedings shall commence under the said constitution as circumstances shall permit, recommend it to the said legislature and to the inhabitants of the said district so to alter their acts and resolutions relative to the premisses [sic] as to render them conformable to the provisions made in the said constitution to the End that no impediment may be in the way of the speedy accomplishment of this important business.
On December 18, , Virginia again gave its consent to Kentucky statehood. The United States Congress gave its approval on February 4, Kentucky officially became the fifteenth state in the Union on June 1, Isaac Shelby, a military veteran from Virginia, was elected its first Governor. Central Kentucky, the bluegrass region, was the area of the state with the most slave owners. Planters cultivated tobacco and hemp see Hemp in Kentucky and were noted for their quality livestock. During the 19th century, Kentucky slaveholders began to sell unneeded slaves to the Deep South, with Louisville becoming a major slave market and departure port for slaves being transported downriver. Kentucky was one of the border states during the American Civil War.
They established a Confederate government of Kentucky with its capital in Bowling Green. President Abraham Lincoln were born in Kentucky. On January 30, , Governor William Goebel, flanked by two bodyguards, was mortally wounded by an assassin while walking to the State Capitol in downtown Frankfort. Goebel was contesting the Kentucky gubernatorial election of , which William S. Taylor was initially believed to have won. For several months, J. Goebel is the only governor of a U. As a result of the tobacco industry monopoly, tobacco farmers in the area were forced to sell their crops at prices that were too low. Many local farmers and activists united in a refusal to sell their crops to the major tobacco companies. The riders terrorized farmers who sold their tobacco at the low prices demanded by the tobacco corporations.
They burned several tobacco warehouses throughout the area, stretching as far west as Hopkinsville to Princeton. In the later period of their operation, they were known to physically assault farmers who broke the boycott. Governor Augustus E. Willson declared martial law and deployed the Kentucky National Guard to end the wars. Kentucky is one of four U. The term was used for Kentucky as it had also been used by Virginia, from which Kentucky was created.
The term has no particular significance in its meaning and was chosen to emphasize the distinction from the status of royal colonies as a place governed for the general welfare of the populace. The commonwealth term was used in citizen petitions submitted between and for the creation of the state. It was also used in the title of a history of the state that was published in and was used in various places within that book in references to Virginia and Kentucky. Kentucky is one of only five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years the others being Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Virginia. Kentucky holds elections for these offices every 4 years in the years preceding Presidential election years. Thus, Kentucky held gubernatorial elections in and After Kentucky became the 15th state in early , five commissioners from various counties were appointed on June 20 to choose a location for the capital.
A number of communities competed for this honor, but Frankfort won. Frankfort had a United States post office by , with Daniel Weisiger as postmaster. Post Office Department records were destroyed by a fire in October 1, , is the date of the first quarterly account sent to Washington by Weisiger. John Brown, a Virginia lawyer and statesman, built a home now called Liberty Hall in Frankfort in While in Congress, he introduced the bill granting statehood to Kentucky.
In , the Kentucky General Assembly appropriated funds to provide a house to accommodate the governor; it was completed two years later. It served Kentucky as its capitol from to The separate settlement known as South Frankfort was annexed by the city in January 3, The Confederate Army also occupied Frankfort for a short time starting from September 3, , the only such time that Confederate forces took control of a Union capitol. On February 3, Governor-elect William Goebel was assassinated in Frankfort while walking to the capitol on the way to his inauguration. Frankfort grew considerably in the s. A modern addition to the State Office Building was completed in The original building was completed in the s on the location of the former Kentucky State Penitentiary.
Some of the stone from the old prison was used for the walls surrounding the office building. The Capitol Plaza was established in the s. The Capital Plaza Office Tower opened in and has become a visual landmark for the center of the city. By the early s, maintenance of the concrete structures was neglected and the plaza fell into disrepair, with sections of the plaza closed off to pedestrian activity out of concerns for safety. In August , city officials announced a plan to demolish the Tower and redevelop the area over a period of years. Demolition of the nearby convention center, which opened in and has hosted sporting events, concerts, and other local events, will be demolished in Spring City officials intend to replace the outdated office tower with a smaller, four- or five-story building in order to create a more pedestrian-oriented scale at the complex, to encourage street activity.
Although there was some rapid economic and population growth in the s, both tapered off in the s and have remained fairly stable since that time. The scene depicts Daniel Boone and his companions standing on a high point overlooking the Kentucky River and the site on the opposite shore where Frankfort is now located. President Franklin D. Roosevelt conrributed to the design. There are at least two distinct shades of the violet stamp, although the Scott catalogue makes no mention of this but compare the two copies from my collection below. Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, the 36th largest and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. It borders eight other states: Kentucky and Virginia to the north; North Carolina to the east; Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi on the south; Arkansas and Missouri on the Mississippi River to the west.
Tennessee ties Missouri as the state bordering the most other states. The state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6, feet 2, m. The state line between Tennessee and North Carolina crosses the summit. The geographical center of the state is located in Murfreesboro. The state of Tennessee is geographically, culturally, economically, and legally divided into three Grand Divisions: East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and West Tennessee. The state constitution allows no more than two justices of the five-member Tennessee Supreme Court to be from one Grand Division and a similar rule applies to certain commissions and boards.
The state is home to the most caves in the United States, with over 10, documented caves to date. The state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was initially part of North Carolina, and later part of the Southwest Territory. It was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, , and was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in Occupied by Union forces from , it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.
Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, and more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting. This sharply reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the midth century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early s, the city of Oak Ridge.
The earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named Tanasqui in while traveling inland from South Carolina. The town was located on a river of the same name now known as the Little Tennessee River , and appears on maps as early as The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee modification of an earlier Yuchi word. The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the s. When a constitutional convention met in to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted Tennessee as the name of the state.
Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee, especially during the Battle of New Orleans. Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname; according to the Columbia Encyclopedia , the name refers to volunteers for the Mexican—American War. The area now known as Tennessee was first inhabited by Paleo-Indians nearly 12, years ago. The first recorded European excursions into what is now called Tennessee were three expeditions led by Spanish explorers, namely Hernando de Soto in , Tristan de Luna in , and Juan Pardo in At that time, Tennessee was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi people.
Possibly because of European diseases devastating the Indian tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, and also from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee moved south from the area now called Virginia. As European colonists spread into the area, the Indian populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi peoples, the Chickasaw and Choctaw, and ultimately, the Cherokee in The first British settlement in what is now Tennessee was built in by settlers from the colony of South Carolina at Fort Loudoun, near present-day Vonore. Fort Loudoun became the westernmost British outpost to that date. Hostilities erupted between the British and the neighboring Overhill Cherokees, and a siege of Fort Loudoun ended with its surrender on August 7, In the s, long hunters from Virginia explored much of East and Middle Tennessee, and the first permanent European settlers began arriving late in the decade.
These renegade Cherokee were referred to by settlers as the Chickamauga. The frontier fort on the banks of the Watauga River later served as a staging area for the Overmountain Men in preparation to trek over the Appalachian Mountains, to engage, and to later defeat the British Army at the Battle of Kings Mountain in South Carolina. Three counties of the Washington District now part of Tennessee broke off from North Carolina in and formed the State of Franklin. Efforts to obtain admission to the Union failed, and the counties now numbering eight had re-joined North Carolina by North Carolina ceded the area to the federal government in , after which it was organized into the Southwest Territory.
In an effort to encourage settlers to move west into the new territory, in the mother state of North Carolina ordered a road to be cut to take settlers into the Cumberland Settlements — from the south end of Clinch Mountain in East Tennessee to French Lick Nashville. North Carolina had used these lands as a means of rewarding its Revolutionary War soldiers. In the Cession Act of , it reserved the right to satisfy further land claims in Tennessee.
The territory was divided into three districts — two for East Tennessee and one for the Mero District on the Cumberland — each with its own courts, militia and officeholders. President George Washington appointed William Blount, a prominent North Carolinian politician with extensive holdings in the western lands, territorial governor. The Southwest Territory existed from May 26, , until June 1, In , a territorial census revealed a sufficient population for statehood. A referendum showed a three-to-one majority in favor of joining the Union.
Governor Blount called for a constitutional convention to meet in Knoxville, where delegates from all the counties drew up a model state constitution and democratic bill of rights. Tennessee leaders thereby converted the territory into a new state, with organized government and constitution, before applying to Congress for admission. Since the Southwest Territory was the first Federal territory to present itself for admission to the Union, there was some uncertainty about how to proceed, and Congress was divided on the issue. Nonetheless, in a close vote on June 1, , Congress approved the admission of Tennessee as the sixteenth state of the Union.
It was the first state created from territory under the jurisdiction of the United States federal government. The Constitution of the State of Tennessee, Article I, Section 31, states that the beginning point for identifying the boundary is the extreme height of the Stone Mountain, at the place where the line of Virginia intersects it, and basically runs the extreme heights of mountain chains through the Appalachian Mountains separating North Carolina from Tennessee past the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota, thence along the main ridge of the said mountain Unicoi Mountain to the southern boundary of the state; all the territory, lands and waters lying west of said line are included in the boundaries and limits of the newly formed state of Tennessee.
Part of the provision also stated that the limits and jurisdiction of the state would include future land acquisition, referencing possible land trade with other states, or the acquisition of territory from west of the Mississippi River. In the early years of settlement, planters brought enslaved African-Americans with them from Kentucky and Virginia.
Enslaved African Americans were first concentrated in Middle Tennessee, where planters developed mixed crops and bred high quality horses and cattle, as they did in the Inner Bluegrass region of Kentucky. East Tennessee had more subsistence farmers and few slaveholders. During the early years of state formation there was support for emancipation. Efforts to abolish slavery were defeated at this convention and again at the convention of By the number of African Americans had increased from less than 4, at the beginning of the century, to , This was chiefly related to the invention of the cotton gin in and the development of large plantations and transportation of numerous enslaved people to the Cotton Belt in West Tennessee, in the area of the Mississippi River.
During the administration of U. President Martin Van Buren, nearly 17, Cherokees — along with approximately 2, black slaves owned by Cherokees — were uprooted from their homes between and and were forced by the U. During this relocation an estimated 4, Cherokees died along the way west. The phrase originated as a description of the earlier emigration of the Choctaw nation. The strongest opposition to secession came from East Tennessee which later tried to form a separate Union-aligned state. The Tennessee legislature ratified an agreement to enter a military league with the Confederate States on May 7, On June 8, , with people in Middle Tennessee having significantly changed their position, voters approved a second referendum calling for secession, becoming the last state to do so.
Many major battles of the American Civil War were fought in Tennessee — most of them Union victories. Ulysses S. Grant and the U. Navy captured control of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers in February They held off the Confederate counterattack at Shiloh in April. Memphis fell to the Union in June, following a naval battle on the Mississippi River in front of the city. The capture of Memphis and Nashville gave the Union control of the western and middle sections; this control was confirmed at the Battle of Murfreesboro in early January and by the subsequent Tullahoma Campaign. Confederates held East Tennessee despite the strength of Unionist sentiment there, with the exception of extremely pro-Confederate Sullivan County.
The Confederates besieged Chattanooga during the Chattanooga Campaign in early fall , but were driven off by Grant in November. Many of the Confederate defeats can be attributed to the poor strategic vision of General Braxton Bragg, who led the Army of Tennessee from Perryville, Kentucky to another Confederate defeat at Chattanooga. The last major battles came when the Confederates invaded Middle Tennessee in November and were checked at Franklin, then completely dispersed by George Thomas at Nashville in December. Meanwhile, the civilian Andrew Johnson was appointed military governor of the state by President Abraham Lincoln. When the Emancipation Proclamation was announced, Tennessee was mostly held by Union forces.
Thus, Tennessee was not among the states enumerated in the Proclamation, and the Proclamation did not free any slaves there. Nonetheless, enslaved African Americans escaped to Union lines to gain freedom without waiting for official action. Old and young, men, women and children camped near Union troops. Thousands of former slaves ended up fighting on the Union side, nearly , in total across the South. Voters in the state approved the amendment in March. It also ratified the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolishing slavery in every state on April 7, Congress, on July 24, Because Tennessee had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, it was the only one of the formerly secessionist states that did not have a military governor during the Reconstruction period.
After the formal end of Reconstruction, the struggle over power in Southern society continued. Through violence and intimidation against freedmen and their allies, White Democrats regained political power in Tennessee and other states across the South in the late s and s. Over the next decade, the state legislature passed increasingly restrictive laws to control African Americans.
In , the General Assembly passed four laws described as electoral reform, with the cumulative effect of essentially disfranchising most African Americans in rural areas and small towns, as well as many poor Whites. Legislation included implementation of a poll tax, timing of registration, and recording requirements. Tens of thousands of taxpaying citizens were without representation for decades into the 20th century. Disfranchising legislation accompanied Jim Crow laws passed in the late 19th century, which imposed segregation in the state.
In , the state celebrated its centennial of statehood albeit one year late with a great exposition in Nashville. Tennessee provided the most celebrated American soldier of the First World War. Alvin C. York, of Fentress County, Tennessee, was a former conscientious objector who, in October , subdued an entire German machine gun regiment in the Argonne Forest. Besides receiving the Medal of Honor and assorted French decorations, York became a powerful symbol of patriotism in the press and Hollywood film. On August 18, , Tennessee became the thirty-sixth and final state necessary to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which provided women the right to vote.
Disfranchising voter registration requirements continued to keep most African Americans and many poor whites, both men and women, off the voter rolls. Scopes, also called the Scopes Trial. In , the General Assembly, as part of a general education bill, passed a law that forbade the teaching of evolution in the public schools. Article Google Scholar. Beck V, Dotzek N Reconstruction of near-surface tornado wind fields from forest damage.
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